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limit diagrams

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Celsius. When an arrowhead appears on a temperature trough line in a liquidus projection, it indicates the direction of decreasing temperature in the trough. Dashed lines are used to denote uncertain or speculative boundaries. Dotted lines indicate the limit of the investigated region. The diagrams...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... i L Phase diagram information can also be used in two simple models to describe the limiting cases of solidification behavior. For solidification obeying the lever rule at each temperature during cooling, complete diffusion is assumed in the solid as well as in the liquid. Thus, all phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... different from that of either pure metal). For example, when the level of carbon exceeds its solubility limit in iron, the excess carbon not dissolved in the iron gets tied up in separate phases of a metastable intermetallic compound, Fe 3 C, called cementite . The iron-carbon phase diagram ( Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is the number of components, and p is the number of stable phases in the system. According to the phase rule, three phases can exist in stable equilibrium only at a single point on a unary diagram ( f = 1 − 3 + 2 = 0). This limitation is illustrated as point 0 in the hypothetical unary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... designated by the exercise of four degrees of freedom. It will be evident from the argument that the phase rule in no way limits the shape of the one-phase regions. Fig. 14 Portion of the α field of Fig. 10 The liquidus and solidus have been removed. Adapted from Ref 3 When two phases coexist...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... and (Eq 43) μ B = G B + Ω ( 1 − X B ) 2 + R T ln X B While the previous model provides a useful description of the effects of configurational entropy and interatomic bonding on the free energy of binary solutions, its practical use is rather limited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... compositions of the phases present, and the amounts of phases present. Phase diagrams provide useful information for understanding alloy solidification. The article provides two simple models that can describe the limiting cases of solidification behavior. alloy solidification binary isomorphous systems...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stable carbon-rich phase than cementite; its formation is promoted by a high carbon concentration and the presence of large amounts of such elements as silicon. Therefore, graphite is an important phase in cast irons but is rarely found in steels. When graphite does form, solubility limits and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., applications, advantages, and limitations of these methods. aluminum alloys continuous-cooling precipitation diagram Jominy end-quench method quenching time-temperature-property diagram ALL PRECIPITATION-HARDENABLE ALUMINUM ALLOYS progressively lose their ability to develop the maximum strength...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... steel melts considerably exceed equilibrium levels ( Ref 7 ). Two possible explanations are the kinetic limitations in the deoxidation reaction and the ineffective separation of deoxidation products from the melt. Consideration of the first possibility suggests that the most important kinetic limitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., limited additional experimental effort is needed, such as in the Mo-Si-B-Ti system ( Ref 45 ). It is well-recognized that the Calphad approach has made significant advancements in calculating a variety of multicomponent phase diagrams for materials/processing development and/or...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... interrelationship between phase diagrams and thermodynamics is presented. The article discusses processes that generally limit the rates of chemical processes. These include nucleation of the product phase and interphase mass transport. The article provides a discussion on the dissolution of alloy with melting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... control limits to the chart and the use of rules for identifying trends, shifts, and out-of-control situations. Control limits differ from specification limits in that the latter are customer-dictated limits, whereas control limits are calculated based on actual data from the process and the laws of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... sizes between the solute and solvent atoms, the more restricted are their mutual solubilities. The solvent phase becomes saturated with the solute atoms and reaches its limit of homogeneity when the distortion energy reaches a critical value determined by the thermodynamics of the system. The effects of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... intermediate ordered β′ phase, equivalent to CuZn, will form on slow cooling. This phase is hard at room temperature and has limited ductility but becomes plastic when it changes to the disordered β phase above 455 °C (850 °F). Unlike face-centered cubic (fcc) copper and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) zinc, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... development of commercial CT systems. These early efforts, however, were directed primarily toward applications for medical diagnostic imaging. There was some limited use of CT in the 1970s for industrial and research applications; this work was primarily done on existing medical systems. Since the end of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... composition, mechanical working, and/or heat treatment on mechanical and physical properties. In terms of properties, strength improvement is a major objective in the design of aluminum alloys because the low strength of pure aluminum limits its commercial usefulness. The two most common methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... −12 m 2 /s ( Table 1 ). However, carbon flow through ferrite is compromised by the limited solubility of carbon in ferrite. That is, Eq 7 indicates that diffusional flux is proportional not only to diffusivity, but also to the compositional gradient. Because the range of solubility of carbon in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... diffusion-controlled growth is affected by precipitation from the liquid and from the primary α or by dissolution of β, according to the slopes of the solubility limits in the phase diagram. Under simplifying conditions, the growth rates have been calculated numerically and found to be in reasonable...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and Hellawell( Ref 3 , 4 ). Figure 1 shows the aluminum-silicon equilibrium phase diagram ( Ref 5 ). It is a simple binary eutectic with limited solubility of aluminum in silicon and limited solubility of silicon in aluminum. The solubility of silicon in aluminum reaches a maximum...