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lightning strikes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Lightning damage in polymer composites is manifested by damage at both the macroscopic or visual level and within the material microstructure. This article illustrates the effects of the laboratory-generated lightning strikes on polymeric composites. laboratory-generated...
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Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 8 Locations subject to high number of lightning strikes More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 2 Montage of the edge of the lightning strike zone that corresponds to section plane B in Fig. 1 . Slightly uncrossed polarized light, 10× objective (25× objective insets) More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 4 Micrograph taken at an area under the lightning strike zone showing delamination and microcracking in the composite. Epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm excitation, 10× objective More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 7 Area under the lightning strike zone where the expanded aluminum foil was vaporized. The surface shows only slight damage. Slightly uncrossed polarized light, 10× objective More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 8 Macroimage of an area under the lightning strike attachment point showing crushing of a honeycomb cell wall. Bright-field illumination, 65mm macrophotograph More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 13 Lightning strike damage in a carbon fiber composite laminate having metal foil on the surface for protection. (a) Slightly uncrossed polarized light, 4× objective. (b) Transmitted light (ultrathin section), circular polarized light, 4× objective. The impregnation outline of the epoxy More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 15 Lightning strike damage in a carbon fiber composite material showing fiber and matrix vaporization and degradation as well as microcracking. Bright-field illumination, 25× objective More
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Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 15 Effect of corrosion-protection coatings on the lightning-strike resistance of fasteners for composites. (a) Fastener with corrosion protection finish, struck by 100,000 A. Heavy damage to composite. (b) Bare fastener struck by 100,000 A. No damage to composite More
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 8 Bonding application in lightning strike design. Source: Ref 82 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to locate damage, characterize the extent of damage, and ensure post-repair quality. It lists suggestions that can be used as design guidelines for adhesive bonding, general composite structure, sandwich structure, material selection, and lightning-strike protection. The article also provides the basic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., including corrosion compatibility, fastener materials and strength, head configurations, importance of clamp-up, interference fit fasteners, lightning strike protection, blind fastening, and sensitivity to hole quality. Types of fusion bonding are presented, namely, thermal welding, friction welding...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 5 Micrograph taken under the strike zone showing damage induced by the lightning strike. Epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm excitation, 25× objective More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 6 Photograph of a painted composite surface, protected with expanded aluminum foil, after a zone 1A lab-induced lightning strike. A cross-sectional map is superimposed over the lightning-strike-damaged area. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., but then lightning-strike behavior may be more of a concern. Additional information about general fastener selection criteria can be found in the article “Mechanical Testing of Threaded Fasteners and Bolted Joints” in Mechanical Testing and Evaluation , Volume 8 of ASM Handbook . Corrosion Compatibility...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 14 Carbon fiber composite cross sections showing heat damage from lab-induced lightning strikes. (a) Section showing heat-affected fibers. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective. (b) Area under the strike zone showing matrix crazing due to the impact. Bright-field illumination, 10 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 12 Interply and intraply arcing events that occurred in a carbon fiber composite after being subjected to a lab-induced lightning strike. Comparison of different contrast methods: bright-field illumination and epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm excitation, 25× objective More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 11 Composite material that was subjected to a laboratory-induced lightning strike. The section shown is 1 mm (0.04 in.) away from the center of the strike. This sample was first impregnated with Rhodamine-B-dyed epoxy casting resin and then, after sectioning, mounted with Coumarin 35 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 1 Photograph of a painted carbon-fiber-reinforced composite part surface after a zone 1A lab-induced lightning strike. Two cross ions were taken from this area after impregnation with a casting resin. The cross sections for microscopic analysis are labeled “A” and “B,” and the direction More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 64 Oxalic tint etch for 15 s. Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn foil heat-affected zone. This is from a lab-induced lightning strike. Note the compromise in etching time. The heat-affected zone is underetched and the base material is overetched. 1 h vibratory polisher, non-nap polyester cloth More