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lightning damage

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Micrograph taken at an area under the lightning strike zone showing delamination and microcracking in the composite. Epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm excitation, 10× objective Fig. 5 Micrograph taken under the strike zone showing damage induced by the lightning strike. Epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... removable components, especially without well-designed containers Environmental damage in flight Lightning strikes Affected zones as specified by regulations; generally near attachment and detachment areas, such as radomes, engine cowlings, outer 18 in. of ailerons and elevators, rudder Designs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of composite structures to locate damage, characterize the extent of damage, and ensure post-repair quality. It lists suggestions that can be used as design guidelines for adhesive bonding, general composite structure, sandwich structure, material selection, and lightning-strike protection. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... is achieved by filling at least one flute. A washer is required between the collar and the composite surface to prevent damage. Fig. 15 Effect of corrosion-protection coatings on the lightning-strike resistance of fasteners for composites. (a) Fastener with corrosion protection finish, struck...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Clearance in the hole Fig. 15 Fastener with corrosion protection finish that was struck by 100,000 A, causing heavy damage to the surrounding composite Fig. 16 Bare fastener struck by 100,000 A. No damage to composite Fig. 17 Conventional blind bolt installed in hybrid joint...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... assurance from receipt of materials through to completed task Verification testing for static, fatigue, and damage tolerance properties Other considerations, including lightning, flammability, individual component tracking, inspection, and repair Engineering damage assessment, analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Included in these articles are the methods and reagents that are used to bring out distinct features in composite materials, such as different phases and areas of degradation or damage. Also included are details of how to prepare special composite materials having vast differences in hardness and material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Reinforcement fibers and fabrics Fiberglass Aramid Carbon Boron Others Reinforcement form Unidirectional tape Woven cloth Weave style Core materials Honeycomb Foam Balsa wood Potting compounds Others Lightning-strike materials Aluminum mesh Copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... with Epoxy Resin, Wet Lay-up Repair Material AMS 3970 CFRP Repair Prepreg 125 °C Vacuum Curing Abstract Abstract This article describes the types of repair and presents reasons for avoiding damage to a structure or component during repair. It discusses the major standardization issues...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Fig. 1 Fasteners that appear solid at the ends may have hidden corrosion damage, such as the wasp-waisting of bilge fastenings. Fig. 2 A backing plate installation distributes stanchion forces. The drain hole in the stanchion base reduces a possible corrosive environment. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... is underetched and the base material is overetched. 1 h vibratory polisher, non-nap polyester cloth and alumina Fig. 65 Hybrid Ti-6Al-4V carbon-reinforced polymer composite with arcing and heat damage from a lab-induced lightning strike. Note the heat-affected zone. The vertical line shows the original...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... addressed. Load enhancement of the spectrum, as suggested for the fatigue test, is currently the only option. For verification of other damage tolerance, such as lightning strike protection, full-scale testing of certain components may be required. Once the lifetime spectrum loading requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... “Mitigation of Alternating Current and Lightning Effects on Metallic Structures and Corrosion Control Systems,” NACE RP-01-77 14. “Principals and Practices of Electrical Coordination between Pipelines and Electric Supply Lines,” Canadian Standards Association C22.3 No. 6-M1987 15. Dabkowski J...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., lightning and bird strikes, and debris kicked up on takeoff or landing) and hangar rash (mishandling of aircraft or components on the ground). Puncture-type damage and microcracking of composites are common; damage of face skins can allow moisture ingression in the underlying honeycomb. Large-part or large...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... that was subjected to a laboratory-induced lightning strike. The section shown is 1 mm (0.04 in.) away from the center of the strike. This sample was first impregnated with Rhodamine-B-dyed epoxy casting resin and then, after sectioning, mounted with Coumarin 35. Microcracks that were not impregnated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... rectifiers use the substation ground mat as a “sacrificial” anode for discharging the required CP current, although the current is designed to be very small and the substation ground mat has a large surface area, current discharge will cause the mat to be damaged over time. Having discussed the various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...-pitch bearings and the rotor shaft main bearing are also susceptible to electrical discharge damage caused by lightning strikes on the rotor blades. However, blade-pitch bearings and rotor shaft main bearing are usually large double-row bearings, which makes it impractical to use insulated bearing rings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... reflecting off the surface. This technique saves time and is an excellent tool. Knowing when to stop and when to continue to the next step is critical and is usually done by feel and experience. Each step leaves damage of decreasing magnitude. When too much material is removed at any given step, the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... stainless steels are cold formed and welded, additional stresses are imposed. The incidence of ESCC is greater in process piping because of the high hoop stresses normally present in piping systems. As the total stress increases, the potential for ESCC increases. The Cl − ion is damaging to the passive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... from vibrations. Continuous low levels of stress can accelerate bond degradation by aggressive environments. Intermittent exposure to corrosive conditions can be more damaging than continuous exposure to the same conditions. For test results to have value in making predictions about the product...