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light optical metallography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... microstructure light optical metallography light optical microscope Overview Introduction The reflected light microscope is the most commonly used tool to study the microstructure of metals, composites, ceramics, minerals, and polymers. It has long been recognized that the microstructure has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of light microscopy are covered in the article “Light Optical Metallography” in this Volume. While light microscopy is an important metallurgical tool, it has a number of limitations: Spatial resolution: Conventional light microscopes cannot resolve features smaller than ∼1 μm. Depth of field...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Optical metallography, one of the most common materials characterization techniques, uses visible light to magnify structural features of interest. This article discusses the use of optical methods to evaluate micro and macrostructure and relate it to process conditions and material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... photographic documentation in failure analysis is also presented. References References 1. Vander Voort G. F. , Light Optical Metallography , Materials Characterization , Vol 10 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2019 2. Picard Y. N. , Scanning Electron Microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... monochromatic lighting and black-and-white photography. However, color photography is advantageous in metallography for showing heating effects, corrosion product, and microstructural features with color. Additional and expanded information on optical metallography can be found in Metallography...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the techniques of fracture surface lighting equally apply to stereomicroscopic photography, and similar results are obtainable. Fig. 17 Typical stereomicroscope used in failure analysis photography Fig. 18 Stereomicroscope photograph of a fatigue fracture Optical Metallography Optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-contrast illumination. (d) Crossed polarized light illumination. As-polished. 200× Polarized Light Polarized light ( Ref 13 , 14 , and 15 ), as used in metallography, has generally been limited to observation of certain optically anisotropic metals, such as beryllium, α-titanium, zirconium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... The application of replica metallography is discussed in more detail in the article “Field Metallography Techniques” in this Volume. Microstructure Optical (light) characterization of the microstructures of metals and alloys involves the identification and measurement of phases, precipitates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... sputtering vapor deposition ETCHING is used in metallography primarily to reveal the microstructure of a specimen under the optical (light) microscope. A specimen suitable for etching must include a carefully polished plane area of the material free of changes caused by surface deformation, flowed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... types of microscopes, including the scanning tunneling microscope and the confocal microscope. The optical microscope offers a number of forms of illumination for revealing surface detail: Bright-field illumination is the most widely used. The incident light is reflected back through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., as shown in Fig. 5 , to obtain the mean random spacing, which is twice the mean true spacing. Fig. 6 Light optical micrograph of the ferrite-pearlite microstructure revealed using 4% picral in as-rolled (continuously cooled) AISI 1040 carbon steel. Original magnification: 500× Fig. 7...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is particularly useful in metallography, because many metals and metallic and nonmetallic phases are optically anisotropic. Polarized light is obtained by placing a polarizer in front of the condenser lens of the microscope and placing an analyzer before the eyepiece ( Fig. 17 ). The polarizer produces plan...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... etching color etchants color metallography differential interference contrast illumination film formation molybdate films optical methods polarized light sulfide films thermal methods tint etching vapor deposition THE USE OF COLOR in metallography has a long history, with color micrographs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... with microstructure revealed using chemical or optical means. The initial as-polished examination provides information based on the interaction of the sample surface with the light from the microscope. Since the prepared samples are opaque, all information is based on how the light is reflected from the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... or other very high resolution techniques. Overaging occurs at higher temperatures or longer times by decomposition of the metastable structures. This decomposition, which commonly takes place by cellular or discontinuous precipitation, is revealed by optical metallography ( Fig. 9 , 10 , 11 , 12...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is then referred back to this description in subsequent articles. No descriptions of macrophotography or metallography (light microscopy) are given in this Section; these are covered in the Section “Metallography” in this Handbook. The following articles provide descriptions of the methods most commonly used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and other advanced equipment. Metallography imaging capabilities have improved significantly due to the use of lower-cost, high-speed computers. Digital cameras are currently being used with more than 12 megapixel resolution and extremely high light sensitivity, resulting in greater speed and flexibility...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and electrolytic polishing. The article also describes the microstructure examination of various materials, with emphasis on failure analysis, and concludes with information on the examination of replicas with light microscopy. electrolytic polishing failure analysis field metallography fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., optical emission spectroscopy; OM, optical metallography; RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; RS, Raman spectroscopy; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; SIMS, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, SSMS, spark source mass spectrometry; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of field metallography and describes the important material characteristics and other aspects to be considered before performing any metallographic procedure. It investigates the various stages of sample preparation...