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lay direction

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Image
Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 4 Symbols used to define lay and its direction. Source: Ref 2 More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 4 Symbols used to define lay and its direction. Source: Ref 2 More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... roughness and the symbols for defining lay and its direction. In addition, it describes the applications of surface integrity, typical surface integrity problems created in metal removal operations, and principal causes of surface alterations produced by machining processes. The article tabulates the effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... lay-up. It provides a description of the two classes of prepregs. These include those that are suitable for high-performance applications and suitable for lower-performance molding compounds. fabrics advanced composites unidirectional fabrics two-directional fabrics multidirectionally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... or small areas between walls. This is especially true if the rotation is not strong enough. Ensure there is enough material to begin with Ensure the rotation speed and direction are suitable Redesign the mold to remove sharp corners or small gaps Increase processing temperature to lower...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 18 Impact crater area vs. compressive residual stress for impacts normal to the lay and compressive stresses perpendicular to the grinding direction (○), and for impacts perpendicular to the lay and compressive stresses parallel to the grinding direction (●), using sintered reaction More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 20 Impact crater area versus compressive residual stress for impacts normal to the lay and compressive stresses perpendicular to the grinding direction (■) and for impacts perpendicular to the lay and compressive stresses parallel to the grinding direction (●), using sintered reaction More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Processing Aids Processing aids that come into contact with or are in the vicinity of the materials being laid up must not contaminate them. Processing aids are categorized as contact-use materials approved for use in direct contact with the part lay- up, and noncontact-use materials approved for use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... process was labor intensive, and inconsistency with hand lay- up caused quality problems with the cured laminates. In the mid-1960s, there was a big push for automation by the aircraft industry. Early machines were home-built by aerospace companies and/or job shops under the direction of materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... sectioned and verification of the fiber angles can be determined quite easily if the orientation for the lay-up is known ( Fig. 7 ). However, if the composite is cross sectioned in only one direction, it may be difficult to accurately determine the fiber orientation of the other plies if they are unknown...
Image
Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 1 Selection of lay-up pattern for fiber-reinforced composite laminates. All fibers in 0°, +45°, 90°, or–45° direction. Note: lightly loaded minimum gage structures tend to encompass a greater range of fiber patterns than indicated, because of the unavailability of thinner plies. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... direction. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective Voids in Honeycomb Core Composites The lay-up of honeycomb parts often results in voided areas in the composite structure as a result of low pressure in the facesheets and vacuum in the core during manufacturing. Voids are often found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., the resin transfer molding interface, the fiber placement and tape-laying interface, and the laser projection interface. continuous fiber composite material fabric deformation core sample flat-pattern evaluation laminate surface offset structural analysis interface resin transfer molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...% of fiber in the weft direction. For unidirectional prepreg with a multidirectional lay-up, the fiber volume fraction ranges from 58 to 63%. Consequently, woven prepreg laminates are both less stiff and strong and are heavier with the higher resin content than unidirectional tape laminates. Woven laminates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract Open molding is the method used in the polymer-matrix composites industry to make thermoset composite products. This article discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and applications of the open molding. It describes the various process of the open molding, such as hand lay-up process...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... a debulking operation. Once any consolidation of a lay-up is performed, elimination of bridging is very difficult. Fig. 10 Splicing of fabric and tape prepegs. Overlap splice is used for fabric at all ply orientations and for tape in a 0° direction. Butt-strap splice is used for fabric in which only...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... have established the viability of LOM for direct fabrication of continuous-fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites (PMCs) and CMCs. With PMCs, a full discussion of the various issues involved is given elsewhere ( Ref 18 , 19 ). The general approach is to use the LOM machine to lay up and shape...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... that justifies their cost. Spray Lay-up Technique The spray lay-up technique is faster than hand lay-up, but produces a less uniform product. It consists of feeding a stream of chopped fibers into a spray of liquid resin in a mold cavity. The direction of the fibers is random, as opposed to the mats...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract Composite tooling is the making of tools from composite materials. This article focuses on wet lay-up methods and techniques that are used to fabricate prepreg tooling. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of composite tools. The article describes the process considerations...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... It describes the functions, types, and chemical composition of fiber sizing agents. The article discusses the styles, properties, applications, and weaving methods of unidirectional, two-directional and multidirectionally reinforced fabrics. The article also reviews the use of prepreg resins in aerospace...