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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... lattice parameters of the unit cells are given in nanometers. The compilation of the table is restricted to changes in crystal structure that occur as a result of a change in temperature or pressure. allotropes crystal structure lattice parameter metallic elements phase transformation THE...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article defines crystallographic terms and concepts, including crystal structure, unit cell, structure symbols, lattice, space-group notation, and atom position. It schematically illustrates the atom positions, prototypes, structure symbols, space-group notations, and lattice...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Crystal structure is the arrangement of atoms or molecules in the solid state that involves consideration of defects, or abnormalities, in idealized atomic/molecular arrangements. The three-dimensional aggregation of unit cells in the crystal forms a space lattice or Bravais lattice...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract The crystal structure of a material is an important aspect of corrosion and oxidation processes. This article provides a general introduction to the crystal structure of materials, providing information on the crystal systems, lattice dimensions, nomenclature, and solid-solution...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Debye-Scherrer camera and the X-ray diffractometer. The article also describes the uses of XRD analyses, such as the identification of phases or compounds in metals and ceramics; detection of order and disorder transformation; determination of lattice parameters and changes in lattice parameters due to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The Mossbauer effect (ME) is a spectroscopic method for observing nuclear gamma-ray fluorescence using the recoil-free transitions of a nucleus embedded in a solid lattice. This article provides an overview of the fundamental principles of ME, covering recoil-free fraction, absorption...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., and transformation texture development during heat treatment of multicomponent alpha/beta and beta titanium alloys. It includes quantitative description of Burgers orientation relationship and path, discussion of lattice correspondence between the alpha and beta phases, and determination of the total...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Diffusion is the process by which molecules, atoms, ions, point defects, or other particle types migrate from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. This article focuses on the diffusivity data and modeling of lattice diffusion in solid-state materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... (antiferromagnetic) state that is commensurate with the lattice periodicity ( e.g. , spins on three atom layers directed up followed by three layers down, etc .), AI = transition to periodic (antiferromagnetic) state that is generally not commensurate with the lattice periodicity ( e.g. , helical spin ordering), CF...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... discussed later in the article. First, the basics of the model are discussed. Fig. 2 Microstructural evolution of an initially random distribution of spins on a two-dimensional square lattice using the Potts model, periodic boundary conditions, metropolis spin dynamics, and kT s = 0.5. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... analysis, indicates specific techniques, and describes the required form of the sample. Table 1 X-ray diffraction analysis Type of analysis Method Sample Lattice parameters and symmetry Automatic: Indexing, space group determination from extinct reflections, refinement Single...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and neutron diffraction methods calculate the residual stress from the elastic strain measured in the crystal lattice without altering the part. Mechanical methods calculate the residual stress from the change in strain relaxed (or dimensional change) caused by sectioning, slitting, drilling, or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... volts. The limited penetration of electrons in this energy range provides information from a very top surface. The first experimental observation of electron diffraction by a crystal lattice was performed by Davisson and Germer in 1927. After an accidental explosion of a bottle containing a nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... crystal plasticity deforming crystals polycrystals elastic behaviour plastic behavior SOLID METALLIC MATERIALS typically are crystalline, existing with well-defined lattice structures. The lattices possess certain symmetries dependent on the packing arrangements of atoms. Accompanying the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., over the last decade, there have also been significant advances in methods for calculation-free energies (entropy) ( Ref 1 ), activated states (i.e., kinetics) ( Ref 2 ), flexible boundary conditions ( Ref 3 ), lattice dynamics ( Ref 4 ), and reaction-rate theory ( Ref 5 ). Taken with the rapid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0005697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... a crack length; crystal lattice length along the a axis A ampere A area; ratio of the alternating stress amplitude of the mean stress Å angstrom ac alternating current AES Auger electron spectroscopy AIME American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Inelastic scattering events generate SEs; Auger electrons; characteristic and continuum x-rays; long-wavelength electromagnetic radiation in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared regions; electron-hole pairs; lattice vibrations (phonons); and electron oscillations (plasmons), as shown in Fig. 17...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... the disordered solution to specific lattice sites in the ordered structure. When atoms periodically arrange into a specific ordered array, they make up what is commonly referred to as a superlattice. Although many alloy systems may contain ordered phases, only select superlattices are discussed in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... lattice (see the article “Crystal Structure” in Metallography and Microstructures , Volume 9 of ASM Handbook , 2004). Deformation of crystals can also occur by other shearing processes, such as twinning, and, in special circumstances, by the migration of vacant lattice sites. Dislocations are...
Book

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.9781627081887
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7