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laser-beam hardening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., nitriding, carbonitriding, and austenitic and ferritic nitrocarburizing, as well as selective-hardening methods, such as laser transformation hardening, electron beam hardening, ion implantation, selective carburizing, and surface hardening with arc lamps. The article also discusses the factors affecting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals and applications of localized heat treating methods: induction hardening and tempering, laser surface transformation hardening, and electron-beam heat treatment. The article provides information about equipment and describes the selection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... nor kinetically from the transformations occurring under conventional conditions. Electron beam hardening belongs, as does laser beam hardening (LBH), to the process group known as short-cycle heat treatments. When compared to all other conventional volume and surface-layer heat treatment processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... for melting-based microstructure and chemical compositional transformed hardening processes (laser cladding, laser alloying, laser hardfacing). A rectangular or square laser beam spot with uniform energy distribution (top-hat intensity distribution profile) is used for nonmelting processes (laser annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., the area coverage/beam overlap and scanning speeds are tuned in such a way that the hardening and tempering is accomplished in the same processing cycle. In addition, heat treatment of selected locations on the surface is possible. The following case studies illustrate surface heat treating using laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006576
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... divided into powder bed-based technologies such as laser and electron beam powder bed fusion, and blown powder directed energy deposition. On the other hand, binder jet-based AM is a powder bed-based technology that uses a binder to fabricate a green component that can be subsequently sintered...
Image
Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 24 Remelt-hardened and transition zones in a pearlitic iron after treatment with a 1.6 kW, 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) diam laser beam of 4.56 mm/s (0.18 in./s). Etched in picral. 50× More
Image
Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 24 Remelt-hardened and transition zones in a pearlitic iron after treatment with a 1.6 kW, 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) diameter laser beam of 4.56 mm/s (0.18 in./s). Etched in picral. Original magnification: 50× More
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract Laser beam machining removes, melts, or thermally modifies a material by focusing a coherent beam of monochromatic light on the workpiece. This article describes the principal lasers used in metal processing: neodymium-glass, carbon dioxide, and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... thicknesses of 0.05 to 1 mm (2 to 40 mils) are more common. The longer the interaction time of the laser beam with the material, the deeper the processed layer will be. Of the processes shown in Fig. 4 , the areas labeled “Cladding and surface melting” and “Transformation hardening” delineate process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... hardening Series 8000, Al-Li MIG, TIG, laser, electron beam Thick sections As welded or reheated (b) Can be welded, careful choice of filler wire to avoid cracking Copper and copper alloys Tough pitch copper, deoxidized copper MIG, TIG, electron beam, resistance, MIG, MMA For arc welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... heating and quenching. Laser and electron beam techniques also have been used for hardening selected areas on the surface of pearlitic and ferritic malleable iron castings that are free from decarburization. Generally, hardness in the range from 55 to 60 HRC is attainable, with the depth of penetration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Laser beams also are used for a number of industrial processes other than welding, including shock hardening, ablation, drilling and cutting, cladding, and transformation hardening. Figure 2 shows how the laser processing parameters interact for various industrial laser beam processes. Many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract This article provides a history of electron and laser beam welding, discusses the properties of electrons and photons used for welding, and contrasts electron and laser beam welding. It presents a comparison of the electron and laser beam welding processes. The article also illustrates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... techniques such as conventional CVD, laser-assisted CVD, cathodic arc deposition, molecular beam epitaxy, ion plating, and sputtering. anodizing case hardening chemical vapor deposition corrosion electroplating hardfacing hot dip coating ion implantation ion plating physical vapor deposition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Computer-controlled system used to manage and synchronize the various components and processing parameters in an automated fashion Heat Sources Directed-energy deposition uses several heat sources to melt and deposit material, the most prevalent being laser beams, electron beams, and electric arcs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... axial flow, transverse flow, and fast axial flow and reviews the applications of Nd:YAG laser. The article describes the basic parameters in the laser-cutting process: beam quality, power, travel speed, nozzles design, and focal-point position. Several material conditions that affect the quality...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... cutting flutes produces a fuzz-free countersink edge. This configuration is shown in Fig. 12 . Fig. 12 Optimal countersink drill for aramid composites Laser Cutting Focused laser beams are used to cut a wide range of composite substrates. While most laser cutting has been performed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract Hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) is a metal joining process that combines laser beam welding (LBW) and arc welding in the same weld pool. This article provides a discussion on the major process variables for two modes of operation of HLAW, namely, stabilization mode and penetration mode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Abstract This article focuses on a variety of laser beam machining (LBM) operations of aluminum and its alloys, namely, laser cutting, laser drilling, laser milling, laser turning, laser grooving, laser scribing, laser marking, and laser micromachining. It presents different approaches...