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laser-beam diameter

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., while CO 2 lasers are performed for nonmetallic materials (e.g., plastics, cardboard, and wood). Beam in about 0.0005 in. in diameter. For holes larger than 0.001 in., spot is deflected or rotated. Holes up to 3 8 in. diameter or 3 8 in. square can be trepanned. Holes in 0.025 in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the principles of operation, equipment needed, applications, and advantages and disadvantages of various fusion welding processes, namely, oxyfuel gas welding, electron beam welding, stud welding, laser beam welding, percussion welding, high-frequency welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... (homodyne or heterodyne or Fabry-Pérot) and optical beam deflection or gas-coupled laser acoustic detection (GCLAD) or knife edge detection ( Ref 20 ). Laser ultrasound instrumentation has been ruggedized, and point displacement detectors now are commercially available and seeing more use particularly for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., plasma arc cutting, oxygen arc cutting, laser beam cutting, and air carbon arc cutting and gouging, describing their process capabilities, equipment used, operating principles and parameters, and factors affecting their efficiency. air carbon arc cutting air carbon arc cutting and gouging bars...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals and applications of localized heat treating methods: induction hardening and tempering, laser surface transformation hardening, and electron-beam heat treatment. The article provides information about equipment and describes the selection of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electrochemical machining (ECM), electrodischarge machining (EDM), and laser beam machining. These processes belong to nonabrasive finishing methods where surface generation occurs with an insignificant amount of mechanical interaction between the processing tool and the workpiece surfaces. This article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... well as sprayed and sol-gel coatings and laser and electron-beam treatments. anodizing buffing chemical conversion coatings chemical vapor deposition cleaning diffusion treatment electron beam treatment finishing grease removal ion implantation laser treatment oxidation resistance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... composites A CO 2 laser with an output of 1500 W generally emits a beam about 20 mm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The power density in this unfocused beam varies across the diameter and reaches a peak of about 4.0 × 10 7 W/m 2 (3.7 × 10 6 W/ft 2 ). While this level will decompose most organics and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... modification of the target surface. Micron-size cones that point back at the direction of the incident laser beam are observed on the surface of ceramic targets and can be broken off by the shock of the laser. The presence of these structures can be minimized by mechanical polishing of the target surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... very versatile manner. When the laser beam is focused to a small circular spot, a surface wave with a cylindrical symmetry is emitted from this spot. Its amplitude has a maximum when the laser pulse duration is approximately D / V R , where D is the spot diameter and V R the Rayleigh velocity of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...-intensity beam to a single spot of high energy density ( Ref 13 , 16 ). A laser system consists of three main components: an amplifying medium, a means of exciting the medium to its amplifying state or pump source, and an optical resonator ( Ref 10 ). The active medium is comprised of materials that, when...
Book

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.9781627081887
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the ultrasonic illumination, and then uses liquid-surface holography, through the interaction with a beam from a reference transducer, to convert the sonic image into a wave pattern, on a liquid surface. A pulsed laser captures the diffraction image of the liquid surface, giving an image of the part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...; bias current IBAD ion-beam-assisted deposition IC integrated circuit ICB ionized cluster beam (deposition) ID inside diameter in. inch IP conventional ion plating IR infrared ISCC intergranular stress-corrosion cracking ISO International...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Adapted from Ref 16 . Reprinted with permission from Cambridge University Press The most recently introduced ion source technology relies on lasers to produce high-brightness ion beams from the ionization of “cold atoms.” This technology, shown schematically in Fig. 12 , takes advantage of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... spot size, which is the electron beam diameter at the sample surface plane, d s . However, it should not be automatically assumed that the electron beam/probe size sets the point resolution. Point resolution is also influenced by the type of signal used for image formation, discussed later in this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...) Angled beam. (c) Pitch-catch. (d) Guided wave Fig. 10 Example scans of a graphite/epoxy paste-bonded laminate panel (approximately 200 × 175 mm, or 8 × 7 in.). (a) 400 kHz air-coupled. (b) 5 MHz water-coupled Laser UT is a method for evaluating materials properties based on the analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... designed for use in-line, but there are also handheld options, which are used on pipe diameters up to 2.5 m (8 ft). Laser-based systems are used to measure tube and beam dimensions with high resolution at very high rates (up to 4 kHz sampling rate). Resolution of features as small as 1 nm ( Ref 13...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., laser beam machining, and ultrasonic machining are a few of these techniques. The information in this article is largely taken from the following articles in Ceramics and Glasses, Volume 4, Engineered Materials Handbook, ASM International, 1991: A.O. Capp, Jr., Laser Beam Machining...