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laser ultrasonic testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article introduces the principal methodologies and some technologies that are being applied for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials. These include ultrasonic testing (UT), air-coupled UT, laser UT, ultrasonic spectroscopy, leaky lamb wave method, acousto-ultrasonics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article discusses the advantages, disadvantages, applications, and selection criteria of various technologies and transduction modalities that can generate and detect ultrasonic waves. These include piezoelectric transducers, electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... originated in 1987 with invention of the polymer-based stereolithography process, followed by selective laser sintering introduced in 1992. In the ensuing years, numerous other processes have been introduced, including metal-based processes that involve laser sintering/melting of various metal powder alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... method in its various implementations suitable for data digitization, immediate interpretation, automation, rapid scanning, in-line production monitoring, and process control. Some of the coupling requirements can be overcome, in some cases, by using gas/air-coupled, laser, and electromagnetic acoustic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... system. Because ultrasound is at the basis of material testing, similarly to conventional ultrasonics, laser-ultrasonics entails the same applications, which include thickness measurement, flaw detection, and materials characterization. Thickness measurement is based on the measurement of the time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... delaminations Slow for large-area coverage Good; portable equipment; suitable for field use Low Laser ultrasonic Delaminations, interface cracks, inclusions, fiber alignment Good Good Fairly good Fair Very high Shearography Only delaminations, inclusions Good provided satisfactory excitation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., although it is not considered with other conventional NDT activities, such as flaw detection. In recent years, conventional tools for metrology, such as micrometer calipers, vernier calipers, and dial gages, have been supplemented with modern high-technology metrology tools, such as laser inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., and equipment limitations. Various crack measurement techniques, including optical, ultrasonic, acoustic emission, electrical, and compliance methods, are also reviewed. The article discusses the two major aspects of FCGR test analysis: to ensure suitability of the test data and to calculate growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract Impact tests are used to study dynamic deformation and failure modes of materials. This article discusses low-velocity impact experiments in single-stage gas guns. It describes surface velocity measurements with laser interferometric techniques. The article details plate impact soft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All Thermal/infrared (IR)—includes passive thermal inspections, flash thermography, and laser flying spot/line technology Surface temperatures are imaged by point sensors, IR cameras, or coatings that change appearance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... treatment Anisotropy (forming, directional solidification, or single crystal) Alloy composition Nuclear radiation Surface-related effects Mechanical surface finish (e.g., as-cast, forged, machined, or ground) Residual stresses Mechanically induced (e.g., shot peening, burnishing, laser shock peening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... relative movement of the unknown specimen with respect to the known specimen deflects a laser beam, and this deflection is measured. It should be noted that significant edge effects may be present for composites, particularly at very low CTEs, so specimens representative of the actual size in use are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... microanalysis) EELS Electron energy loss spectroscopy Electron Electron (scattered) Electronic status of very small portion ≈10 nm; depth direction 50 µm Elemental analysis, electron state analysis (+ transmission electron microscopy ELL Ellipsometry Light (laser) Light (polarized) Optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Abstract This article describes the two commonly used standardized tests for determining the mechanical properties of thermal spray coatings: hardness testing and tensile adhesion testing. It discusses the destructive and non-destructive methods of residual-stress measurement. Electrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... opposite sides of the specimen. Laser and white light systems based on these principles are available commercially. Optical systems may have restrictions on their frequency response. Like optical crack length measurement techniques, most optical extensometry techniques are difficult to use when testing at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., shock welding, and laser surface processing Cavitation and particulate erosion in turbines and marine propulsion Defense applications, including projectile/armor and explosive or propellant/material interactions Measurement of the mechanical properties of materials is normally conducted via...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article reviews the general mechanical properties and test methods commonly used for ceramics and three categories of polymers, namely, fibers, plastics, and elastomers. The mechanical test methods for determining the tensile strength, yield strength, yield point, and elongation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract Sheet metal forming operations are so diverse in type, extent, and rate that no single test provides an accurate indication of the formability of a material in all situations. This article presents an overview of types of forming, formability problems, and principal methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... input to the system when in “learn” mode, with each component identified for subsequent testing and evaluation against the signatures collected. With “fuzzy logic” applied by the software and a relatively stable laser weld process, the reference data can be acquired with as little as 6 samples, although...