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large shallow through holes

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Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract Trepanning is used in at least four distinct production applications: round disks, large shallow through holes, circular grooves, and deep holes. This article provides an overview of the first three applications. It describes the machines, tools, techniques, and cutting fluids used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... to reach a value of 0.85 after sufficient crack growth from a crack with arbitrary initial aspect ratio. At large crack sizes, when the crack front at the depth approaches the specimen back surface, there is a tendency for the cracks to become shallow. This is due to the fact that even in nominally tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... and their general geometric features. These operations include hole making, flanging, bead and rib forming, and stretching and drawing for shallow or deep recesses. The article illustrates the general approach to design for sheet forming and the considerations that must be made for material savings...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
..., because cored holes are often less than 6 mm ( 1 4 in.) in diameter. Drilling practice varies considerably among different shops. The slow-spiral drill geometry, like the fast-spiral design, has large polished flutes and a thin web. The flute helix angle is much lower, resulting in a lower...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Examples 1 , 2 , 3 , and 4 in this article document such cases. Example 1: Severe General Corrosion on Historic Lane Plate Made From Chromium Steel The four-hole Lane plate shown in Fig. 6(a) was inserted 46 years ago and remained in the body for 26 years. A large portion of the plate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005862
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... the heated (above the critical temperature) part into a press to maintain critical tolerances on flatness of products such as knives and gears. The press is closed on the part and fluid quenchant is applied through holes in the press dies. The dies keep the part flat as the material cools during quenching...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
.... The difference between counterboring and spotfacing is that a counterbored surface usually has a shoulder at the bottom of the enlarged hole, while a spotfaced surface is flat and always at right angles with the axis of the hole. In addition, the depth of cut in spotfacing is usually shallower than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... by four sets of tools mounted 90┬░ apart around the forming post. Finally, the part is stripped off the center post and dropped through a hole in the bed. Small parts that are used in large quantities and require considerable forming are often produced on multiple-slide machines. In general, more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... shallow rib-to-web enclosures. See text for details. Dimensions given in inches A second example of shallow rib-to-web enclosures is provided by the 3.7 m (12 ft) long landing gear support beam forging shown in Fig. 1(b) . Here on a large scale, are a series of enclosures of various sizes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... welding. Advantages are described in terms of welding near heat sensitive components or materials and producing deep penetration or shallow welds with the same equipment. dissimilar metals electron beam welding electron beam welding machines joint design process control weld geometry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are steel; however, many other materials are used in shaft applications. Moving shafts are often classified as either transmission shafts or machine shafts. Transmission shafts are generally cylindrical, and they transfer motion through attached componentry such as gears, pulleys, and so on. Machine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... can also be used to foster the necessary mechanisms for solid-state joining. Variants of solid-state resistance welding include flash-butt, upset-butt, mash-seam, etc. This article provides a fundamentals-based description of these approaches through one specific process variant. This is termed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., bridge unbalance system, induction bridge system, and through transmission system. The article concludes with a discussion on the inspection of aircraft structural and engine components. aircraft structures bridge unbalance system coil impedance eddy-current inspection electrical conductivity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are final-fracture zones. A large-radius fillet at a change in shaft diameter imposes a moderate stress concentration. Figure 4(b) shows the pattern on the surface of a fracture through such a fillet. A small-radius fillet at a change in diameter results in a severe stress concentration. Figure 4...
Book Chapter

By Mark Johnson
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
...). They also require longer travel than other types to produce full threads in through holes. Fig. 3 Chamfers for solid taps Plug Chamfer Plug chamfer ( Fig. 3b ) is the most commonly used type. Taps with plug chamfer are not required to penetrate a hole as deeply as taps with taper chamfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of measuring the distance between shallow holes or dimples. Another approach to a constant biaxial stress field in a flat plate, varying only through thickness, was described by Moore and Evans ( Ref 6 ). They relied on XRD for the measurement of the strains from which the stress was calculated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... . This notch sensitivity is largely a consequence of the absence of inelastic straining mechanisms in these composites. Continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites with high toughness exhibit intermediate behavior in the sense that their strength diminishes gradually with hole diameter and appears...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... by the use of reamers with shorter cutting edges. With special tools, such as gun reamers, accuracy can be attained in reaming holes many times longer than the cutting edge. Stock Removal Most reaming operations are not intended for the removal of large amounts of stock. This can usually be done more...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... is recommended. If a flat machined face is available, the drill bushing can be held tightly against the machined face during drilling. This allows chips to be brought back through the bushing. Shallow Holes Drilling holes in magnesium to a depth less than four times the diameter presents few difficulties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the stress concentrations around bolt holes so that there is only a loss of area, with no stress concentration at ultimate load on the remaining (net) section at the joints. With composites, however, there is no relief at all from the elastic stress concentration if the holes or cutouts are large enough...