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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...-and-extrude operations, slotting, countersinking, and cutting and lancing of tabs. The article provides information on the punch assembly, the die assembly, and the stripper and discusses the factors considered during piercing operations. It reviews the applications of the four types of blanks used in sheet...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of environmental concerns and more efficient technologies. However, some foundries still employ this technique, especially on small crucible furnaces. The second most popular degassing technique in historical use—and still used today (2008)—is a simple flux wand or static lance. This can be a steel pipe...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and oxygen lance holes on large roofs, and they are cooled by a network of steel pipes running throughout the structure. The delta section and electrode ports are usually constructed of a high-alumina refractory brick, rammed material, or precast shapes. Fig. 6 Typical roof ring with cooling face...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and uniform mixing of alloys, temperature homogenization, adjustment of chemical composition, and partial removal of nonmetallic inclusions. These functions are accomplished by lowering a refractory-protected lance close to the ladle bottom or by blowing through porous refractory plugs at the bottom...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... become an important process step due to the demand for ultralow sulfur steels. Soda ash, calcium oxide, calcium carbide, or a mixture of these, is injected with air through a lance immersed in hot-metal ladles. Calcium serves as the desulfurizing agent producing calcium sulfide. Sulfur levels of 0.015...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... surface. However, drossing and melt-cleaning fluxes can also be added via rotary flux injection and/or lance flux injection. Furnace wall cleaner fluxes are typically blown (with a gunning device) onto the furnace walls at the melt line. The flux injection process introduces the powder flux in a finely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... in a plane perpendicular to the forming plane. A four-slide machine can perform most press operations within its strip-size capacity. Basic metal-processing operations that can be performed in a four-slide press section are: piercing, notching, coining, swaging, extruding, lancing, embossing, forming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., is carried out at pressures of 6.9 to 69 MPa (1000 to 10,000 psig). It is used to remove such deposits as light rusting, minerals, and polymers. There are three types of high-pressure water cleaning: tube lancing, line moling, and shotgun jetting. In tube lancing, a rigid or flexible lance is used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... cutoff, parting, blanking, notching, and lancing. The first three of these operations can produce a complete blank in a single press stroke. In progressive dies, two or more of these five operations are done in sequence to develop the complete outline of the blank and to separate it from the sheet, strip...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... and 1500 °C (1800 and 2700 °F), particle erosion, corrosive gases Mainly plasma for melting of oxide ceramics. HVOF alternative for bond coats Thermal barrier materials: insulating YSZ topcoats with oxidation bond coats (NiCr alloys and MCrAlYs) Molten steel processing—gas injection tuyeres, lances...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... for contour roll forming. Simple V-bends or more intricate shapes can be formed in a press brake. Operations such as blanking, piercing, lancing, shearing, straightening, embossing, beading, wiring, flattening, corrugating, and flanging can also be carried out in a press brake. Information on press-brake...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... as much as possible contact with the molten metal and dross layer. Based on the size of the furnace and the process used, the stirring can be accomplished manually by the furnace tender, by lance flux injection, or mechanically by a forklift or another mechanized vehicle. Typically, agitation and stirring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... Air jets are used where possible to eject the pierced slugs from the die. The forming of lanced detents and flanged holes toward the punch side of the blank can be done by actuating the punches with cams on the rear camshaft. Additional movements of die units can be obtained from any of the three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... coating quality. Spraying can also reach the areas that flooding cannot. The spraying method works for both horizontal and vertical molds, but the flooding method works only for horizontal molds. Figure 4 shows a patented automatic spray lance system that offers automatic control of the forward...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.9781627081740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steel (such as 1008 and 1010) sheet and strip in dies in a mechanical or hydraulic press. Methods of Blanking in Presses Cutting operations performed by dies in presses to produce blanks include cutoff, parting, blanking, notching, and lancing. The first three of these operations can produce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... time was 7 s. The finished parts showed uniformly good quality without wrinkles or buckles. Approximately 0.9 kg (2 lb) more sheet steel would have been needed to produce this part in a conventional double-action press. Lancing If stretch drawing is used to form severe contours, the stretch...