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By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... which only CO and hydrogen are present. Hydrogen increases with increasing nickel up to 10 wt% Ni but is decreased at 30 wt% Ni. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 3 Schematic of gas fluxing in molten aluminum Fig. 4 Water model with (a) static lance and (b) disperser or rotating shaft/rotor...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the exhaust and oxygen lance holes on large roofs, and they are cooled by a network of steel pipes running throughout the structure. The delta section and electrode ports are usually constructed of a high-alumina refractory brick, rammed material, or precast shapes. Fig. 6 Typical roof ring with...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... gas Bubbling methods allow quick and uniform mixing of alloys, temperature homogenization, adjustment of chemical composition, and partial removal of nonmetallic inclusions. These functions are accomplished by lowering a refractory-protected lance close to the ladle bottom or by blowing through...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Furnace wall cleaner fluxes Cover, drossing, and melt-cleaning fluxes are usually manually spread, shoveled, or thrown onto the melt surface. However, drossing and melt-cleaning fluxes can also be added via rotary flux injection and/or lance flux injection. Furnace wall cleaner fluxes are typically...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... mixture of these, is injected with air through a lance immersed in hot-metal ladles. Calcium serves as the desulfurizing agent producing calcium sulfide. Sulfur levels of 0.015 and 0.008% have been reported using lime or calcium carbide as the reagents, respectively ( Ref 15 ). Use of lime-soda ash...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-strain fracture toughness K t theoretical stress concentration factor k distribution coefficient kg kilogram km kilometer kPa kilopascal ksi kips (1000 lb) per square inch kV kilovolt L liter L length lb pound LBE lance bubble...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.9781627081740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... works only for horizontal molds. Figure 4 shows a patented automatic spray lance system that offers automatic control of the forward and backward movement, moving velocity, and spray on and off operations of the spray lance. It can also adjust height and tilt angle to align the lance with all customer...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... achieved via continuous degassing (lance or porous plugs) of molten metal in the furnace and the use of ceramic filters. The overall cleanliness of the molten metal can be easily determined using either the reduced pressure test or the Prefil-Footprinter (ABB Group) (see the article “Measurement of Metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.9781627081610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., materials such as alumina or garnet are common abrasive media and typically result in smaller R z . Normally, the blast station is equipped with a pipe rotation device. There are two types of blast devices: compressed air and rotating wheel. Each process uses a lance for support. With current technology...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... dies in a mechanical or hydraulic press. Cutting operations performed by dies in presses to produce blanks include cutoff, parting, blanking, notching, and lancing. The first three of these operations can produce a complete blank in a single press stroke. In progressive dies, two or more of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., electric arc furnace melting and induction furnace melting are most common. The nickel-chromium irons are readily made in either acid-, neutral-, or basic-lined electric furnaces. They are normally dead melted, and there is usually no reason to use oxygen lancing except as a means of slightly reducing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... methods have been found to be effective: Carbide is injected with inert gas through graphite or refractory lances that supply the carbide and simultaneously stir the melt. Inert gas is bubbled through a porous plug in the bottom of a ladle, with desulfurizing agent fed onto the surface with a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... through graphite or refractory lances that supply the carbide and simultaneously stir the melt. Inert gas is bubbled through a porous plug in the bottom of a ladle, with desulfurizing agent fed onto the surface with a vibrating feeder. The shaking ladle system places a ladle of iron in a gyrating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... reverberatory melting, at a minimum have mixing effects due to thermal gradients and can have other mixing effects, such as electric and/or magnetic fields as well as forced stirring, for example, by the addition of sparging lances. In a perfect world, the metallurgist would be able to transform this...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... reacts with the carbon in the charge to form carbon monoxide gas that is removed from the furnace. The boil is produced either by using an oxygen lance or by adding mill scale (Fe 3 O 4 ) as a source of oxygen. In many cases, the rust on the charge is sufficient to produce the carbon boil. A vigorous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... furnace (BOF) as the primary steelmaking furnace. The EAF consists of a refractory-lined “bowl” with a water-cooled roof and sidewalls. Large graphite electrodes extend through the roof and provide electrical energy to melt the steel, while oxygen lances provide chemical energy during the melting process...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... against further oxidation and absorption of hydrogen. Wall-cleaning fluxes are used to help in softening the buildup on furnace walls to permit easier removal by mechanical cleaning. They are usually applied with a lance or flux gun or may simply be broadcast manually onto the walls. Slightly exothermic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... 5 Fig. 11 Views at lower and higher magnification of the fracture surface on a MgAl 2 O 4 single crystal showing the mirror region with whisker-lance mist hackle (onset indicated by arrows); {100} tensile surface and ⟨100⟩ tensile axis. This type of hackle occurs when cracks propagate on...