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laminated composite materials

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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 29 Schmatic of the laminate code (0/90/±45), for a composite material. The laminate code follows an ascending order from the bottom ply. The numerals are ply (or fiber) orientation with respect to the x-axis. The subscript s denotes that the laminate is symmetric with respect to the midplane More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... cases. The article concludes with a discussion on composite materials that are reinforced in the z-direction (also known as three-dimensional, or 3-D composites). mechanical properties composites out-of-plane analysis THE STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS of laminated composite materials is most often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... such as mechanistic or phenomenological, for composite materials under cyclic loading. composite structures damage tolerance delamination material degradation compression loading fatigue life bearing failure fatigue damage life prediction model quasi-isotropic laminate tension-compression fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of these loading-related failure modes as well as materials defects originating from processing, which include voids, fiber-rich or matrix-rich regions, fiber misalignment, and laminate stacking errors. The integrated effect of the cumulative damage state of the composite results in the final failure mode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... A reliable micromechanical analysis of properties of fibrous composite materials is the crucial first step in subsequent macromechanical analysis and design of structures manufactured from these materials. See the articles “Micromechanics” and “Macromechanics Analysis of Laminate Properties...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...Abstract Abstract Testing of fiber-reinforced composite materials is performed to determine uniaxial tensile strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio relative to principal material directions, that helps in the prediction of the properties of laminates. Beginning with an overview...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... (number of cycles to failure, N ). In composite laminates, the S-N relation primarily depends on the constituent material properties ( Ref 11 , 12 ). Most advanced fibers are very insensitive to fatigue, and the resulting composites show good fatigue resistance. Figure 6(a) shows the S-N curves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the substructure design for the construction of tool laminates. composite tooling composite materials wet lay-up prepreg composite tools curing demolding cutting trimming tool laminates tool design COMPOSITE TOOLING is the making of tools from composite materials. Since the early 1980s...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... techniques used in the statistical development of allowable values. design allowables lamina laminate allowables composites DESIGN ALLOWABLES are statistically determined materials property values derived from test data. They are limits of stress, strain, or stiffness that are allowed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... a special utility, if conversion is even possible. Engineering Calculations For the purpose of selecting software, composite engineering calculations can be classified into three broad classes: micromechanics or material modeling, macromechanics or laminated plate theory, and structural analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... “Instability Considerations” addresses buckling analyses specially formulated for orthotropic materials and laminates. The article “Damage Tolerance” addresses the use of empirical and analytical methods for assessing the damage tolerance of composite laminates and structures. Design guidelines and lessons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... It provides a discussion on electromagnetic interference shielding, electrostatic discharge protection, metal plating, fire resistance, and corrosion resistance on composite materials. composites composite laminates fiber-reinforced polymer wet lay-up autoclaves resin transfer molding vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract This article illustrates typical fractographic features for a number of different composite materials. It describes the differences in fracture characteristics due to different loading, material processing, and environmental conditions. The article presents fractographic data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract Continuous fiber composite materials offer dramatic opportunities for producing lightweight laminates with tremendous performance capabilities. This article describes the kinematics of fabric deformation and explains the algorithms used in draping simulation. It discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... composite ship structures are made of thick-section glass-reinforced polyester (GRP) laminate or a sandwich material consisting of GRP face skins covering a balsa or polymer foam core ( Ref 1 ). There are many ways that a composite component can be damaged in service, but in general it is due...
Book Chapter

By Greg Kress
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Aramid 1.44 0.0520 Carbon (graphite) 1.80 0.0650 Stiffness Stiffness is presented with values that can be very deceiving when designing with composite materials. Once again, resin will not greatly impact laminate property differences during material selection, because resin has very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... with a cylinder. Source: Ref 22 A tensile load applied at the 0 or 90° axis of a material results in a simple extension with no distortions in- or out-of-plane (as shown for the symmetric laminate in Fig. 9 ). No distortions make this “doubly” symmetrical composite desirable for many flat laminate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and laminate (two or more plies bonded together) test data. This article provides very general mechanical testing guidelines for the characterization of lamina and laminate properties. Because of the variety of composite materials currently in use, the test methods discussed in the article may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and short- and long-term properties of a fiber reinforced composite laminate depending on material selection and workmanship. The article also presents the basic design guidelines for open molding. open molding polymer-matrix composites thermoset composites hand lay-up spray-up process matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-Matrix Composite Materials and Their Laminates D 3039/D 3039M Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials D 3410/D 3410M Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials with Unsupported Gage Section by Shear Loading D...