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laminate thickness

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... mm thick AS4/3501-6 coupons and panels with three bolted spars Fig. 22 Damage diameter versus impacter kinetic energy for falling-weight impact tests and gas-gun tests conducted on [45/0/−45/90] 6s AS4/3501-6 laminates Fig. 23 Impact force versus impacter mass for 73 J impacts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...) V f = 0.6 Note: Ply thickness, 0.13 mm (0.0052 in.) Laminate elastic constants Table 3 Laminate elastic constants Analysis E x E y G xy ν xy GPa 10 6 psi GPa 10 6 psi GPa 10 6 psi Lamination theory 64.9 9.42 64.9 9.42 24.5 3.55 0.325...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... increases such that the average strength decreases. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 9 Deformation behavior of composites. The deformations for composites with various symmetries are schematically illustrated for in-plane loading and bending. Generally, laminates that are symmetric through the thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... construction. A, layer with surfacing veils impregnated with 90 to 95% resin; B, two-layer laminate having 450 g/m 2 powder-bonded mat, preferably with 20 Tex ECR fiber, or an equal thickness made of a silane-sized ECR spray roving (glass content should be 20–30%); A + B, chemical-resistant liner (preferably...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to the part. As the design progresses, the actual laminate can be analyzed and the number of plies, thickness, materials, and true fiber orientations can be verified. Accuracy of information throughout every stage of the design cycle is essential to the proper completion of a composite design. Composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Significant Moderate Moderate Significant Relationship between scarf patch size and laminate thickness for a hole size of 50 mm (2 in.) Table 3 Relationship between scarf patch size and laminate thickness for a hole size of 50 mm (2 in.) No. of plies Laminate (a) Scarf length Patch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... across the width of a laminate. Free-edge stress distribution is limited to a region approximately one laminate thickness wide. Fig. 3 Approximation of free-edge normal stresses Fig. 4 A curved laminate “C” channel in various loading conditions. (a) Unloaded. (b) Radii open under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... Fig. 3 Induction coil with laminations stacked between mechanical supports. Courtesy of Tucker Induction. Lamination thickness varies based on frequency used to limit eddy-current losses from the in-plane magnetic field. The lamination coating prevents an electrical connection between...
Book Chapter

By Greg Kress
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... for composites can come from having a small selection of materials available where variations in ply and laminate thickness are limited. A margin of safety is determined after the design of a laminate is completed and the laminate properties have been verified. The ability of a laminate to meet and exceed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... deflections. Fig. 3 Single fastener lap shear specimen in uniaxial tension Fig. 4 Reaction loads of a flush head fastener in uniaxial tension Fig. 5 Development of 130° head for shear Fig. 6 Load distribution in fasteners joining thin and thick laminates Fig. 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and (b) void content for a carbon/epoxy composite. Source: Ref 1 , 7 Fig. 11 Effect of laminate thickness on the mechanical properties of unidirectional AS4 carbon-tape/Epon 828 epoxy composites processed at 100 psi and 170 °C (275 °F) for 2 h. 1 ply = 0.7 mm (0.028 in.). Source: Ref 18...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...-center die loads. Parallelism of the bed and slide should be 0.012 mm/mm (0.012 in./in.) of bed dimensions, both left-to-right and front-to-back. Presses designed for producing laminations have heavy connections, large diameters of the mainshaft and connection bearings, close gib clearances, and thick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... all aspects of the cost. Most important of these is the cost of making laminations from the strip or sheet. A punch press running at constant speed will produce the same number of laminations regardless of material thickness. Hence, it would require 31% more machine time to produce a stack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Carbon Fiber Epoxy Resin , Polym.-Plast. Technol. Eng. , Vol 32 ( No. 4 ), 1993 , p 269 – 275 12. Young W.-B. , Compacting Pressure and Cure Cycle for Processing of Thick Composite Laminates , Compos. Sci. Technol. , Vol 54 , 1995 , p 299 – 306 10.1016/0266-3538(95)00067-4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... was needed. The regression algorithm requires a set of CAI test data that adequately represents the range of laminate stacking sequences and thickness combinations that will be used for the design. The CAI strength of a given laminate is highly dependent on stacking sequence. Therefore, it is important...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... temperature is low and if it is removed before postcure. A peel ply can also be used between the mold and a thick laminate to accept entrapped volatiles, thereby preventing porosity in the external composite plies. A separator (release material) is placed on top of or under the laminate and peel ply...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to vary the balance of through-thickness and in-plane reinforcements, offers useful flexibility for structural design. The relationship between compaction pressure and fiber volume fraction is important since this dictates the mold-clamping force for a given laminate thickness ( Fig. 6 ) ( Ref 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... is applicable for bolts up to 9.5 mm (0.375 in.) in diameter. Larger bolts are associated with progressively lower laminate stresses. σ brg , bearing stress (σ brg = P / dt , where P is the load, d is the bolt diameter, and t is laminate thickness), F brg , composite ultimate bearing strength; F tu...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... consistent, high-quality parts, it is mandatory that proper materials be used by specially trained personnel. The materials usually used in preparing a layup for autoclave curing are peel ply (optional), separator, bleeder, barrier, breather, dam (depending on laminate thickness and tooling), and vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... planks eliminates manual ply-by-ply stackup and can dramatically cut costs during high-volume production. Preconsolidation can be accomplished using a laminator, press, autoclave, or a roll consolidator. The roll consolidator is an efficient way to make constant thickness sheet stock. In this apparatus...