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laboratory-generated lightning strikes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Lightning damage in polymer composites is manifested by damage at both the macroscopic or visual level and within the material microstructure. This article illustrates the effects of the laboratory-generated lightning strikes on polymeric composites. laboratory-generated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... removable components, especially without well-designed containers Environmental damage in flight Lightning strikes Affected zones as specified by regulations; generally near attachment and detachment areas, such as radomes, engine cowlings, outer 18 in. of ailerons and elevators, rudder Designs...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., including corrosion compatibility, fastener materials and strength, head configurations, importance of clamp-up, interference fit fasteners, lightning strike protection, blind fastening, and sensitivity to hole quality. Types of fusion bonding are presented, namely, thermal welding, friction welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... will only fluoresce in the shorter wavelengths, lower than 450 nm. Fig. 11 Composite material that was subjected to a laboratory-induced lightning strike. The section shown is 1 mm (0.04 in.) away from the center of the strike. This sample was first impregnated with Rhodamine-B-dyed epoxy casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... This structure transforms to a body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure, called “beta” phase, at 883 °C (1621 °F). Alloying elements generally can be classified as alpha or beta stabilizers. Alpha stabilizers, such as aluminum and oxygen, increase the temperature at which the alpha phase is stable. Beta...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to samples that are conductive or can be made so. The individual sparks in a train strike different locations on the sample electrode in a random fashion similar to lightning, generating a several-millimeter-wide burn pattern on a planar sample. For an average analysis of a sample with inhomogeneity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the typical transgranular lightning strike appearance of ESCC in the pipe. External SCC of austenitic stainless steel is possible when the equipment is contacted by aerated water, and chlorides or contaminants are present in the temperature range 50 to 150 °C (120 to 300 °F) in the presence of tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... and subsequent discharge During electric-resistance welding on, or near, the gearbox if the path to ground is not properly made around the gears rather than through them During lightning strikes on wind turbines An electric arc produces temperatures high enough to melt the contacting surfaces of gear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... increases in current and arcing. Serious overheating, localized melting, and pitting can occur. Arcing, similar to a lightning strike, can be visible through the sight glass of the process chamber. Pressure and Gas Composition According to the Paschen curves ( Fig. 7 ), the breakdown voltage and thus...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in an adhesive generally produces change in other properties of the joint, such as tensile or shear strength, elongation, or resistance to peel or cleavage. Resisting Fatigue A property somewhat related to the ability to damp vibration is resistance to fatigue. A properly selected adhesive can generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... for the transmission of information, training, education, and research in the field of occupational health and safety. OSHA's current standards for welding, cutting, and brazing in general industry and construction are based on the 1967 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard Z49.1 and the National Fire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... to molecular friction. This can lead to lightning strikes within the body of the oil, charring the oil in the path of the arcing electricity. Conductive particles are effective at dissipating charges, preventing damage to the oil from static discharge ( Ref 30 ). Wear Particle Analysis Techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Safety is an important consideration in all welding, cutting, and related work. This article discusses the basic elements of safety general to all welding, cutting, and related processes. It includes safety procedures common to a variety of applications. The most important component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (if present), and soil samples. Following transport of the incident pipe sections to a laboratory, pipeline failure analysis investigations generally adhere to a procedure or protocol agreed upon by all involved parties. Investigations typically begin with an information- and data-gathering step, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article discusses the requirements for designing repairable composite structures such as a honeycomb sandwich panel construction and integrally stiffened co-cured composite structures. It reviews the general and specific design guidelines for bolted or riveted repairs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...General comparison of properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers Table 1 General comparison of properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers Property (approximate values) Metals Ceramics Polymers Density, g/cm 3 2–22 (average ~8) 2–19 (average ~4) 1–2 Melting points Low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.9781627084390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... found in phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide systems. These utility systems use hydrocarbon fuels such as methane. Significant advantages over conventional utility power generation systems are forecast: improved efficiency, reduced NO x emissions, quiet operation, generation dispersal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.9781627081658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8