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laboratory chemicals

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... relatively quickly, and to accelerate failure in a standard environment for purposes of failure analysis. These testing regimes recreate one or more aspects of an environment that cause material degradation. Aspects commonly recreated in a laboratory setting are corrosivity, chemical attack, solar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on wet chemical methods that have stood the test of time in laboratories around the world. It begins with a description of the appropriateness of classical wet methods. This is followed by sections on sampling procedures, basic chemical equilibria, and wet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., namely, facility-specific, industry-specific, coating-type-specific, or a combination of these. It describes the standard laboratory tests used to generate performance data, namely, physical, compositional, chemical exposure, and application characteristics tests. The pros and cons of using manufacturer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... of FEVE resins. The original fluoropolymer resins were known for their superior properties, such as weatherability and chemical resistance, but they possessed limited application capabilities due to their high melting point, high melt viscosity, and insolubility in organic solvents. Several different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... rusting, which can be accelerated by the presence of chloride salts, oxides of sulfur, and other electrolytes that enter into or modify the chemical reactions involved. The composition and metallurgical characteristics of the alloy also influence the extent and rate of rusting, and they frequently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chemical processes occurring at the film-vacuum interface during IBAD and dual-ion-beam sputtering with illustrations. The article also reviews the methods used for large-area, high-volume implementation of IBAD and the modes of film formation for IBAD. It contains a table that presents information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract Coatings, such as those applied to ships, must be resistant to abrasion, in the case of cargo hold coatings, and cyclic changes of chemicals and tank cleaning, in the case of tank linings. Failures and defects can manifest themselves at various times in the life of a coating. To...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...). The article presents the factors related to the use of surgical implants and their deterioration in the body environment, including biomedical aspects, chemical environment, and electrochemical fundamentals needed for characterizing CF and SCC. It provides a discussion on the use of metallic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article introduces the fundamental concepts of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics in describing presolidification phenomena. For metallurgical systems, the most important thermodynamic variables are enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. A qualitative demonstration of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Gas analysis by mass spectrometry, or gas mass spectrometry, is a general technique using a family of instrumentation that creates a charged ion from a gas phase chemical species and measures the mass-to-charge ratio. This article covers gas analysis applications that do not use...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-pressure die casting. The article provides information on the types of copper castings and tabulates the nominal chemical composition and mechanical properties of several cast alloys. copper castings aluminum antimony beryllium bismuth chemical composition chromium copper alloys high-pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... describes the modeling of vapor-surface interactions and kinetics of hetereogeneous processes as well as the modeling and kinetics of homogenous reactions in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The article provides information on the various stages of developing models for numerical simulation of the transport...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The properties of irons and steels are linked to the chemical composition, processing path, and resulting microstructure of the material. For a particular iron and steel composition, most properties depend on microstructure. Processing is a means to develop and control microstructure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and combustion and inert gas fusion analysis. This article provides information on the capabilities, uses, detection threshold and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inorganic chemical compounds. This article describes the operating principles and types of XRD analyses, along with information about the threshold sensitivity and precision, limitations, sample requirements, and capabilities of related techniques. The necessary instrumentation for XRD analyses include the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) processing techniques to be produced at room temperature. These include substitutional solid solutions of normally immiscible or low-solubility elements. Such highly metastable and amorphous alloys often possess unique physical and chemical properties. Ion implantation has been used extensively in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... resistance corrosion testing electrochemical corrosion test field corrosion test humid aggressive atmospheres laboratory accelerated test simulated service test CORROSION, according to the ASM Materials Engineering Dictionary , is “the chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... laboratory testing, production testing, and structural testing. The article includes a section in which the characteristics of acoustic emission inspection are compared with other nondestructive testing methods. Further, it briefly reviews the key elements of the acoustic-emission instrumentation, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on laboratory atomic force microscopes (AFMs) used in ambient air and liquid environments. It begins with a discussion on the origin of AFM and development trends occurring in AFM. This is followed by a section on the general principles of AFM and a comprehensive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... friction and wear applications. It provides information on friction, types of wear, and lubrication. The article includes a brief description of the friction and wear test methods, laboratory-scale friction, and wear testing, usually performed either to rank the performance of candidate materials for an...