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kinetic undercooling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... The article describes various undercooling methods, including kinetic undercooling, thermal undercooling, constitutional undercooling, and pressure undercooling. For solidification to occur, nuclei must form in the liquid. The article discusses the various types of nucleation: homogeneous nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the equilibrium (melting) temperature occurs. The article details five types of solidification undercooling, namely, kinetic, thermal, constitutional (solutal), curvature, and pressure undercooling. It explains the types of nucleation which occur in the melt during solidification. The effects of local...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Observed characteristics of potential nucleant compounds Table 1 Observed characteristics of potential nucleant compounds Compound Crystallographic relationships Lattice disregistry, % Ref Undercooling (Δ T ) (a) Ref a direction b direction °C °F Al 3 Ti (221)Al...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... , and Flemings M.C. , Solidification of Highly Undercooled Sn-Pb Alloy Droplets , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 15 , 1984 , p 1303 – 1310 10.1007/BF02648558 34. Turnbull D. , Kinetics of Heterogeneous Nucleation , J. Chem. Phys. , Vol 18 , 1950 , p 198 – 203 10.1063/1.1747588 35...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., such as those in Fig. 22 and (c) , are due to incorrect kinetic undercooling and an imbalance of impurities influencing constitutional undercooling. An insufficient amount of impurities influencing kinetic undercooling (for example, magnesium) will favor the formation of intermediate graphite shapes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... a very small undercooling from atom attachment kinetics), an undercooled liquid region is obtained under certain conditions. The concentration gradient for the steady-state concentration field ( Eq 6 ) at the interface z = 0 is: (Eq 8) G c = − Δ C o ( V / D...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pressure as repulsive force and fluid drag as attractive force; shape-preserving paraboloidal growth front; considers smooth particles and thermal conductivities of particle and melt; neglects kinetic undercooling; solute screening is considered separately Stefanescu et al. Repulsive surface energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... dendrites, is positioned below the liquidus temperature in the phase diagram in Fig. 2 . The same is true for the eutectic temperature. The melt is undercooled with respect to the equilibrium temperature. The reason for this is a kinetic effect, which needs a driving force to order the atoms over...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... , Archives Metall. Mater. , in press 22. Lacaze J. and Sertucha J. , Effect of Cu, Mn and Sn on Pearlite Growth Kinetics in As-cast Ductile Irons , IJCMR , Vol 29 , 2016 , p 74 – 78 10.1080/13640461.2016.1142238 23. Askeland D.R. and Gupta S.S. , AFS Trans. , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of nucleation and growth of equiaxed eutectic grains as a function of undercooling. The approach was later formalized by Rappaz ( Ref 3 ), who showed how to couple the heat flow equation with the nucleation and growth laws. The amount of latent heat released by solidification can be incorporated...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.../0001-6160(77)90248-6 18. Chuang Y.K. , Reinisch D. , and Schwerdtfeger K. , Kinetics of the Diffusion Controlled Peritectic Reaction During Solidification of Iron-Carbon Alloys , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 6 , 1975 , p 235 – 238 10.1007/BF02673703 19. Fredriksson H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... decomposition spinodal transformation structure SPINODAL TRANSFORMATION is a phase-separation reaction that occurs from kinetic behavior first described by Gibbs in his treatment of the thermodynamic stability of undercooled or supersaturated phases. It is does not involve a nucleation step, which...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... phase, and the formation of noncrystalline phases. It considers three factors to understand the fundamentals of these changes: heat flow, thermodynamic constraints/conditions at the liquid-solid interfaces, and diffusional kinetics/microsegregation. These factors are described in detail. casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... over time, as well as to integrate the kinetics of the development of envelopes defining the grains. Fig. 2 Schematic of a single grain ( Ref 8 ) growing in a uniform temperature field is shown in (a). The square highlighted in (a) shows a typical length scale for representative elementary...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the boundary between the solidifying mush and liquid. Applying a kinetic model for the motion of this boundary then determines the growth of the grain structure. The liquid outside a grain envelope has to stay in an undercooled state until the local REV is captured by a growing envelope, or an appropriate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... thickens with increasing undercooling below T p . The matrix is the Sn-η eutectic. Mechanically polished, etched in HNO 3 . 100×. Source: Ref 34 Fig. 32 Start of the peritectic transformation in the same directionally solidified Cu-20Sn alloy shown in Fig. 30 , but at higher magnification...
Book Chapter

By W.L. Johnson
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... and growth of crystals. The theory of crystallization of an undercooled melt can be applied to the crystallization of the glass. As such, by a suitable choice of kinetic conditions (sufficiently low temperature), one can always ensure that the second condition of Eq 8 is satisfied. Essentially, solid-state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... bases, the scale at which it applies, and the mathematical background are presented for each modeling approach. The article concludes with a table that presents a comparison of the main inputs/outputs, approximations, numerical methods, kinetics laws, and applications for the three approaches...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... field in a casting is very important in determining the microstructure of the cast alloy. Two distinctly different conditions may exist in a mold that can give rise to equiaxed or columnar crystals. First, consider the case of equiaxed crystals that form in an undercooled melt. As the solid nucleates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... equilibrium conditions. In practice, the lever rule usually will not give the volume fraction of the different phases from a peritectic transformation, because the nucleation and growth kinetics—determined by the diffusion rate—are slower in solid phases, increasing the time required to reach equilibrium...