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jet quenching

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... batch heat treating operations, placement and spacing of parts on the racks can be a major factor in determining the quenching rates. In immersion quenching, adequate volumes of the quenching medium must be provided to prevent an excessive temperature rise in the medium. When jet agitation is used to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... agitator, flow rate, and power consumed. In spray or jet quenching, additional factors are encountered, such as the shape, arrangement, and placement of the spray head in relation to the work; the pressure, velocity, and size of the jets; and the total volume of quenching fluid used per unit of time...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... room temperature and should be suitably cooled so that it remains below 38 °C (100 °F) during the quenching cycle. Use of high-velocity, high-volume jets of cold water also is effective for some materials. (b) The nominal temperatures listed should be attained as rapidly as possible and maintained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... vapor passes quickly at a downward angle through narrow, circumferential openings in the nozzles. As molecules of gas stray from the vacuum chamber above the pump and move toward the vapor jet streaming from the nozzles, they encounter the downward-directed stream of heavy molecules. The overall effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... strength and resistance to elevated temperatures. While these series of alloys were finding their way into the early European jet engine applications, these alloys found their initial applications in North America in thermal process equipment and the chemical process industry, where carburizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... necessary unless the heating is performed by induction or direct electrical conduction. (d) Usually neglected due to immature models for coupled boiling-fluid flow simulations for immersion quenching but it can be quite useful for fluid jet quenching and intensive quenching processes. (e) Not...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... be suitably cooled so that it remains below 38 °C (100 °F) during the quenching cycle. Use of high-velocity, high-volume jets of cold water also is effective for some materials. The nominal temperatures for aging in Tables 1 , 2 , 3 should be attained as rapidly as possible and maintained within...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... engines. Bearings made from M50 steel have been used in engine applications for many years. Jet engine speeds are being continually increased in order to improve performance and efficiency; therefore, the bearing materials used in these engines must have increased section toughness to withstand the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... solution and achieve full softening for aging or further processing Jet engine components Pt-8%W 800–1000 1470–1830 Protective reducing Not necessary Medical devices, resistance wire, bridge wire Pt-10%Ni 700–900 1290–1650 Protective reducing Preferred, to maintain solution and achieve full...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... closed boiler heated at the bottom is forced upward inside the boiler. The vapor passes quickly through a narrow circumferential opening in the nozzles at a downward angle. Molecules of gas that stray from the vacuum chamber above the pump toward the vapor jet streaming from the nozzles encounter the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... members, armor, actuators, ordnance, ballistic-tolerant components, jet engine shafts, drive shafts, helicopter masts, and containment rings. Maraging steels can be considered highly alloyed low-carbon, iron-nickel lath martensites. The phase transformations in these steels can be explained with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... by electrical resistance elements and recirculation of fluidizing gas. 1, pivoting cover in two parts; 2, insulation; 3, refractory material; 4, fluidized bed; 5, resistance elements; 6, filter; 7, refractory material; 8, gas inlet; 9, filter; 10, jet pump; 11, gas outlet; 12, recirculating gas; 13...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., molybdenum, tungsten, niobium, tantalum, and rhenium are used in commercial superalloys (which are high-temperature alloys designed for the gas turbine of jet engines). Table 4 Role of alloying elements in nickel alloys Effect (a) Elements Solid-solution strengthening Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, W, Ta...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Acoustics, University of Mississippi Temperatures inside a caviting bubble can be extremely high, with pressures up to 500 atm. The implosion event, when it occurs near a hard surface, changes the bubble into a jet about one-tenth the bubble size, which travels at speeds up to 400 km/hr toward the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... equipment Explosion bonding is a cold pressure welding process in which the contaminant surface films are plastically jetted off the base metals as a result of the high-pressure collision of the two metals. During the high-velocity collision of metal plates, a jet is formed between the metal plates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... shot, or iron grit. Dry coating methods use formulations that are mainly silica; these formulations generate a surface with the hardness and abrasion resistance of glass. Fluxes and opacifiers are mixed into the silica, and the mixture is then melted, quenched, and ground to make frit. (Frit is the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... flooding over the surface film If the liquid metal is allowed to either fall or spread horizontally, the unstable propagation of the front in the form of jets or streams bounded by an oxide flow tube leads to a situation where the oxide flow tube grows to a considerable thickness and is finally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...× (G. Hopple, Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.) Figure 1133 shows two portions of a fractured titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V second-stage compressor disk from a jet engine. Of the three radial fractures, the one at upper right, which passes through the bolthole marked “a,” was found to be...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Highest High (e) Low Low to medium W3 Highest Shallow High Medium 50–64 Highest High (e) Low Low to medium (a) A, air cool; B, brine quench; O, oil quench; S, salt bath quench; W, water quench. (b) After tempering in temperature range normally recommended for this steel. (c...