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isothermal transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... describes the use of equilibrium binary phase diagrams as a tool in the interpretation of microstructures. It reviews an account of the two types of solid-state phase transformations: isothermal and athermal. The article discusses isothermal transformation and continuous cooling transformation diagrams...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., and grain growth. The article also describes the various types of solid-state transformations such as isothermal transformation and athermal transformation, resulting from the heat treatment of nonferrous alloys. It provides information on the homogenization of chemical composition within a cast structure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article presents an outline of the physical metallurgical principles that are associated with heat treating of steels. It describes the iron-carbon phase diagram and various types of transformation diagrams, including isothermal transformation diagrams, continuous heating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005949
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... that meet these limits. Fig. 28 Properties of cast carbon steels as a function of carbon content and heat treatment. (a) Tensile strength and reduction of area. (b) Yield strength and elongation. (c) Brinell hardness. (d) Charpy V-notch impact energy Fig. 3 Isothermal transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... carbon steel on the hardness of fine pearlite formed when the quenching curve intersects the nose of the time-temperature diagram for isothermal transformation Fig. 6 Effect of hydrogen loading on martensitic and bainitic microstructures in 4340 steel samples. Q&T, quenched and tempered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
...Abstract Abstract Similar to the eutectic group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a solid phase on cooling through the peritectic isotherm. This article describes the equilibrium freezing and nonequilibrium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... diagram ferrite heat treatment iron-carbon phase diagram isothermal transformation martensite pearlite residual stress steel thermal stress Introduction Constitution of Iron Phases of Heat Treated Steel Transformation Diagrams Isothermal Transformation Diagrams Continuous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in the formation of a bay between the two transformation curves on a time-temperature-transformation curve, as shown in Fig. 1(b) ( Ref 1 ). The bainite transformation occurs below a well-defined bainite start temperature, and the fraction transformed increases with decreasing temperature. During isothermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... treatment cycles microstructure THE TRANSFORMATION OF AUSTENITE upon cooling in steels is well documented. Isothermal (time-temperature transformation) and continuous cooling transformation diagrams (CCT) are used to represent the kinetics of transformation under different thermal cycles. General...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... with 2.5% Si. Silicon affects the conditions and the kinetics of the carbide formation on cooling. As an example, Fig. 4 is a plot of isothermal transformations in nodular irons with two levels of typical silicon content. The graphite in iron (whether it is present as flakes, temper carbon nodules...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the weld metal and HAZs. A preheat or interpass temperature that is too high can decrease the rate of cooling of the weld metal and HAZs sufficiently to result in the transformation of austenite to either ferrite (containing regions of high-carbon martensite) or coarse bainite. Both structures lack high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and in annealed high-speed steels. Figure 37 shows a portion of the isothermal section of the Fe-Cr-C system at 870 °C (1600 °F), illustrating the location of the various chromium-rich carbides observed in several chromium-bearing tool steels. Fig. 37 Portion of the 870 °C (1600 °F) isothermal section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... by austempering, an isothermal reaction process resulting in a product called austempered ductile iron (ADI). Other heat treatments in common industrial use include stress-relief annealing and selective surface heat treatment. Stress-relief annealing does not involve major microstructural transformations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... be obtained through microstructural modification. Microstructure evolution and control in titanium alloys is heavily dependent on the allotropic transformation from a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure (denoted as alpha phase) found at low temperatures to a body-centered cubic crystal structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., and the hardness of austempered ductile iron increases as the isothermal transformation temperature decreases from ~380 to 280 °C (715 to 540 °F). Today (2017), one can avoid the use of pressure-sensitive-adhesive (PSA)-backed SiC paper by using an MD-Gekko disc placed on the magnetic surface of the platen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Transformation Kinetics , J. Heat Treat. , Vol 1 ( No. 3 ), 1980 , p 57 – 64 10.1007/BF02833039 23. Umemoto M. , Nishioka N. , and Tamura I. , Prediction of Hardenability from Isothermal Transformation Diagrams , J. Heat Treat. , Vol 2 ( No. 2 ), 1981 , p 130 – 138 10.1007...
Book Chapter

By G.R. Speich
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... is increased ( Fig. 17 ). Producing such large amounts of austenite in these steels involves intercritical annealing followed by isothermal transformation in the bainite temperature range ( Fig. 18 ). The high silicon content of these steel results in the displacement of almost all the carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... that an isothermal transformation would proceed with long-range redistribution of substitutional solutes within the three-phase field but would follow the same rules as for the CCT transformation if proceeding at temperatures below the stable three-phase field. References References 1. Lacaze J...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... at temperatures up to 70 °C (125 °F) higher than temperatures listed. (d) Seldom annealed. Structures of better machinability are developed by normalizing or by transforming isothermally after rolling or forging. (e) Annealing is impractical by the conventional process of continuous slow cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... The condition of the austenite (grain size, degree of recrystallization, etc.) affects the phase transformations that occur during cooling following thermomechanical processing. During service at ambient temperature, steel ordinarily consists of two phases: ferrite and cementite. Different morphological...