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isothermal quenching furnaces

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...: the first type uses atmosphere austenitizing followed by salt quench and the second type employs austenitizing salt baths with rapid transfer to the quench salt. The article provides a detailed account on the construction, advantages and disadvantages, and limitations of isothermal quenching furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Austenitize at 855 to 885 °C (1575 to 1625 °F). Oil quench to below 70 °C (160 °F); or quench in salt at 200 to 210 °C (390 to 410 °F), hold for 10 min, and then air cool to 70 °C or below. For optimum dimensional stability, aus-bay quench into a furnace or salt bath at 525 °C (975 °F), equalize...
Book Chapter

By J.R. Keough
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... in the quenching of ferrous materials is covered in this article. Salts are also used for descaling, processing of nonferrous materials, nitriding, and removing various coatings and ceramic shell material. Molten salts are usually the medium of choice for high-temperature quenching. Examples are: Isothermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...–1700 2 h min Air quench with fans. Temper at 540–650 °C (1000–1200 °F). Furnace cool to 345 °C (650 °F), 55 °C/h (100 °F/h). Air cool. (a) Temperature of castings. (b) Slow cooling from 540 to 315 °C (1000 to 600 °F) is to minimize residual stresses. Source: Ref 12 Three types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... furnace ( Ref 7 ). In the late 1960s, nearly 40% of the ordinary quenched and tempered components were converted to the new DFQ process, and more than 130 components (1500 tons/month) were produced by DFQ at an automotive company ( Ref 6 , 7 , 8 ). Knuckle arms, pitman arms, and various joint yokes made...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005958
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Abstract This article provides a detailed discussion on the heating equipment used for austenitizing, quenching, and tempering tool steels. These include salt bath furnaces, controlled atmosphere furnaces, fluidized-bed furnaces, and vacuum furnaces. The article discusses the types of nitriding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005954
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steels , ASM International ( Ref 5 ) Atlas of Isothermal Transformation and Cooling Transformation Diagrams , American Society for Metals, 1977 ( Ref 6 ) M. Atkins, Atlas of Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams for Engineering Steels , American Society...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005949
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., and discusses the classification of carbon steels for heat treatment. The article also discusses the estimation of continuous cooling curves from isothermal transformation curves. It provides information on the Jominy end-quench test and the Grossmann method and the procedures to increase hardenabilty of carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... a 16 mm (0.6 in.) steel bar in a salt bath, a lead bath, a fluidized-bed, and a conventional furnace is illustrated in Fig. 5 . Figure 6 shows heating and recovery rates for a fluidized bed. Results of both hardening and isothermal quenching of type D3 tool steel with salt baths and with fluidized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... usually quenched in water (brine) or oil. Salt-bath quenching is used for some grades to perform martempering. The increasingly rapid quench rates of modern vacuum furnaces with high-pressure gas quenching allow the quenching of some of these grades, especially for smaller sections. The possibilities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the furnace to the quenching medium must be short enough to preclude slow precooling into the temperature range where very rapid precipitation takes place. The second requirement for avoidance of appreciable precipitation during quenching is that the volume, heat-absorption capacity, and rate of flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that cause a part to fail during heat treatment. The article discusses the problems associated with heating and furnaces, quenching media, quenching stresses, hardenability, tempering, carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding as well as potential stainless steel problems and problems associated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and cooling curves for slow furnace cooling (annealing), air cooling (normalizing), and quenching. Figure 2 is an isothermal transformation diagram with a process path for austempering. Fig. 1 Continuous cooling transformation diagram showing annealing, normalizing, and quenching. M s , martensite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... in order to decrease the austenitizing time. For most steels, as indicated in Table 3 , annealing may be accomplished by heating to the austenitizing temperature and then either cooling in the furnace at a controlled rate or cooling rapidly to, and holding at, a lower temperature for isothermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... austempering convection furnace cooling curve maraging steels martempering molten metal bath normalizing powder metallurgy steels quenching salt bath furnace spheroidizing steels stress relieving tempering time-temperature transformation transformation curve ultrahigh-strength steels Stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Nickel-base alloy billets can be induction heated or furnace heated before hot forging. Regardless of the heating method used, the material must be cleaned of all foreign substances. Although nickel-base alloys have greater resistance to scaling at hot-working temperatures than steels, they are more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... (700 °F). (i) To 205 to 175 °C (400 to 350 °F), then air cool. (j) Temper immediately. (k) For isothermal annealing, furnace cool to 650 °C (1200 °F), hold for 4 h, furnace cool to 425 °C (800 °F), then air cool. (l) For isothermal annealing, furnace cool to 670 °C (1240 °F), hold for 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... is furnace hardened from a temperature of 860 to 870 °C (1575 to 1600 °F). This results in a combined carbon content of approximately 0.7% and a hardness of approximately 45 to 52 HRC (415 to 514 HB) in the as-quenched condition. The actual hardness of the martensitic matrix is 62 to 67 HRC, but the presence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... content and hardness that occur on heating and quenching of both alloyed and unalloyed gray iron are shown in Table 6 . Ordinarily, gray iron is furnace hardened from a temperature of 860 to 870 °C (1575 to 1600 °F). This results in a combined carbon content of approximately 0.7% and a hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... lead. Salt quenching is covered in more detail in the article “Salt Quenching” in this Volume. Allowed to transform isothermally (over several minutes or hours) to bainite at the temperature that produces the desired hardness. This is generally accomplished in a bath of molten nitrite-nitrate salt...