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isothermal forging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Hot-die forging and isothermal forging are unique forging methods developed to forge materials that are difficult or impossible to forge by conventional means. This article presents a comparative study on hot-die forging and isothermal forging. It discusses forging parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... processing of the gamma aluminides with particular reference to production scaleable techniques, including vacuum arc and cold-hearth melting, isothermal forging, conventional hot forging, and extrusion. The selection and design of manufacturing methods, in the context of processing-cost trade-offs for gamma...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of workpiece asperities in metal forming. It presents advanced tribology models and results for friction in isothermal forging operations in which the tooling is maintained at a temperature close to that of the workpiece. The article provides information on heat transfer models. It discusses the effect of wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., hot forging of aluminum, isothermal and hot die forging, and the extrusion of steel. cold forging forging hot die forging hot forging steels lubricants molybdenum disulfide superalloys hot forging titanium hot forging FORGING and related processes consist of cold, warm, and hot...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... on computer-aided design in the forging industry. Additionally, the article reviews specific characteristics, process limitations, advantages, and disadvantages of the most common forging processes, namely hot upset forging, roll forging, radial forging, rotary forging, isothermal and hot-die forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Works in Cypress, Texas (now Wyman Gordon Co.) which was using hot extrusion to manufacture long products and oil-field goods. Superalloy extrusions were cut into multiple sections, ultrasonically inspected, and isothermally forged into turbine disks similar to those shown in Fig. 1 and 2 . PM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... can be forged and processed with appropriate TMP, albeit gamma aluminides are very, very difficult to fabricate by “conventional” titanium forging fabrication processes and usually require “special” processing techniques including isothermal forging based on powder metallurgy for manufacture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-aluminide materials have been used for such applications. The molybdenum alloy TZM is used in isothermal forging applications where the tools are heated to the same temperature as the workpiece. Due to the poor oxidation resistance of the molybdenum tooling, this process is performed in a vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... processed superalloys of the 1960s. Isothermal Forging and Hot-Die Forging The current trend in the forging of heat-resistant alloys is to lower the strain rate and to heat the dies. Faster strain rates lead to frictional heat buildup, nonuniform recrystallization, and metallurgical instabilities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... specific heat render it susceptible to die chill. Hammer forging minimizes the contact time between workpiece and die and can also maintain the forging temperature through adiabatic heating. Rotary forging machines using computer-controlled reduction schedules can maintain nearly isothermal conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Axisymmetric aircraft engine components, such as turbine disks and seals, are typically produced by isothermal, hot die, or hammer forging. The forged shapes require extensive machining to produce the final part. Shafted rotating turbine components are often produced by a combination of isothermal forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... that forms second phases on melting and solution temperatures and thus on forgeability Workability Tests for Establishing Effects of Process Variables Tests for establishing the effects of process variables on workability in forging include the high-speed isothermal tension test (or compression...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Hobbing Isothermal forging Nosing Open-die forging Rotary (orbital) forging Precision forging Metal powder forging Radial forging Upsetting Incremental forging Rolling Sheet rolling Shape rolling Tube rolling Ring rolling Rotary tube piercing Gear rolling...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the piece in sand or slag. An alternative treatment for large forgings of alloy steels (such as 4340) is to cool in air to approximately 540 °C (1000 °F), followed by isothermal annealing at 650 °C (1200 °F). Alloy tool steel forgings should always be cooled slowly, as is recommended previously...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... with moderate ductility. Isothermal forging substantially enhanced ductility with moderate strength, while α-β forging maximized strength while reducing ductility. Cold isostatic pressing and sintering followed by extrusion ( Table 5 ): Extrusion provided superior strength and ductility values in all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... density. Thus, best practice in titanium forging requires heated dies or isothermal forging. These forging process are more costly but can provide a better forged product of this high-value material. Hot-die forging and isothermal forging allow a component to be forged closer to its final shape, resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...Various specifications for wrought products of titanium and titanium alloys Table 1 Various specifications for wrought products of titanium and titanium alloys Issuing agency or the name of the standard or specification Specification or standard for: Plate, sheet, or strip Forgings...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Conventional forging may require two or three operations, whereas isothermal forging may require only one. A schematic of a conventional forging and subsequent heat treatment sequence is shown in Fig. 2 . The solution heat treatment offers a chance to modify or tune the as-forged microstructure, while...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... G. , Ed., Les Editions de Physique , 1989 , p 1161 – 1166 17. Weiss I. , Eylon D. , Toaz M.W. , and Froes F.H. , Effect of Isothermal Forging on Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of Blended Elemental Ti-6Al-4V Powder Compacts , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 17A ( No. 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to various metalworking operations Operation von Mises effective strain rate ( ε ˙ ) (a) , s −1 Corresponding surface shear strain rate in torsion ( ε ˙ ), s −1 Rotation rate (b) , rpm Isothermal forging 10 −3 1.73 × 10 −3 0.02 Hydraulic press forging 1 1.73 16.5...