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isolated heavy sections

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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 16 Risering of isolated heavy sections joined by a thinner section to minimize shrinkage and number of risers. (a) Workpiece with no risers. (b) Riser added to one side. (c) Risers located on both ends. (d) Chill applied to one end and riser to other end. (e) Riser used on one end More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article addresses the problems of designing isolated heavy sections that are functionally essential. It describes the two most efficient solutions to these problems over which the designer has control: providing flow and feed paths and reducing the mass of the isolated sections...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and uniformly tapered to the extremities, as shown in Fig. 1(c) . The metal flows into the mold cavity at the heaviest section, thus preventing an initial chilling of the metal by the mold, such as occurs with a small volume of metal. Because the molten metal in heavy sections retains more of its heat...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ( Ref 19 ). These feed paths can often be manipulated by proper application of chilling or insulating materials to minimize risering needs. Several methods of risering isolated heavy sections are shown in Fig. 16 , using a casting with two heavy sections joined by a thinner connection. In Fig. 16...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... over posts A. This created a direct path for metal flow to the opposite heavy section and eliminated cold shuts. Increasing the size of these bosses added enough additional heat to the mold to keep the thin sections liquid for a longer period. In turn, the gated areas could feed the previously isolated...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...(a) contained a heavy center section, making it easy to feed and fill. However, the thick and thin sections froze in such a way as to produce severe distortion. The side plates froze and started to contract considerably in advance of the heavier center section. Then, as the center section solidified and cooled...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in the form of sand, dross, slag, or reoxidation products. Fatigue fractures can exhibit a rougher texture as the crack propagates through and around the anomalies. With heavy-section steel castings in the quench and tempered condition, alloy segregation can cause varying degrees of both ductile and brittle...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the temperature of the mold. Cycle frequency: The faster the operating cycle, the hotter the mold. Casting weight: Mold temperature increases as the weight of molten metal increases. Casting shape: Isolated heavy sections, cored pockets, and sharp corners not only increase overall mold temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract This article discusses the production process, testing methods, quality control, and common defects found in heavy-section ductile iron (DI) castings, along with analyses of industrial examples. The common defects include shrinkage defects, graphite-particle-related defects, and chunk...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... at low magnification, they are often found to contain dendrites that possess a treelike form ( Fig. 14 ). Heavy sections and hot spots, such as areas adjacent to ingates and feeders or regions experiencing changes in section size, are most susceptible to this type of defect. Shrinkage, because...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., Fig. 14(k) . The pattern and rigging for the revised casting are shown in Fig. 14(m) . In the original design, the heavy sections of the casting were not accessible for risering. In the new design, risers were easily located where they were needed. Also, the revised design permits the use...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... by which metal is dissolved, leaving behind various nonmetallic constituents for isolation and study, will be discussed in the section of this article on “Inclusion and Second-Phase Testing.” Table 4 lists some miscellaneous mediums useful in dissolving specific materials. Miscellaneous dissolution...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., however, are heavy and nonuniform in stress compared to a well-designed casting for the same purpose. Section modulus (or, more specifically, the area moment of inertia) is a function of shape and difficult to compute. Therefore, a quick, simple way to compute or estimate the area moment of inertia...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... can increase feeding efficiency by slowing the chill rate and keeping the riser molten longer. The functional requirements of a casting can demand the use of padding because of the impracticability of risering an isolated section. For simple, thin-walled castings of rather uniform thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... flexibility in the design of feeding systems. Process development clusters are readily mocked up for trial. Extruded wax shapes are easily bent into feeders that can be attached to any isolated sections of the part that are prone to shrinkage. Once proved, they can be incorporated into tooling if this is cost...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... with a foundry on design. A foundry will have the technical expertise to partner on the casting, design, and materials selection. General Design Rules There are several rules of thumb to the development of a good steel casting. First, reduce the number of isolated heavy sections and have smooth-flowing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... by the ultrasonic system. This can cause fractures in the workpiece or in previously made welds, resulting in inconsistent weld quality. This effect can be minimized or eliminated by applying pressure in strategic locations on the fixture or by applying pressure circling the weld spot to isolate the section being...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... passes through mesh. This slanted-line contact occurs between the teeth of helical gears on parallel shafts, spiral bevel gears, and hypoid gears. Fig. 9 Lines of contact on a stepped spur gear. The heavy line on a tooth face of each gear section represents the instantaneous line of contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... to the other, as shown in Fig. 1 , and avoiding situations where two heavy sections are separated by a thin section. (This is a poor design because metal must feed one heavy section through the thin section; when the thin section freezes before the heavy section, the flow path will be cut off and shrinkage...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the cores was also improved, and removal of core sand was made easier. Thin Core Sections The separation of heavy masses of metal with thin core sections should be avoided. If too much metal is adjacent to a core or surrounds it, the core will be unable to dissipate the heat from the molten metal...