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ironmaking practices

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article describes ironmaking and steelmaking practices (melt or liquid processing, including hot metal desulfurization) and discusses the evolution of these processes and their effects on steel properties. The physical chemistry of steelmaking may appear deceptively simple...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article presents a detailed account on the process flow, composition, alternative sources, and the advancement of ironmaking, steelmaking and secondary steelmaking practices. Some steels, such as bearing steels, heat-resistant steels, ultrahigh strength missile and aircraft steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... temperature, A 1 , and manganese lowers it. The upper and lower critical temperatures can be calculated using the actual chemical composition of the steel ( Ref 2 ). Annealing Cycles In practice, annealing cycles are classified based on the specific purpose and the temperature to which the steel...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in the United States. Some other processes, such as the open-hearth furnace, are still practiced in a few countries to produce special steels. Primary melt refinement also includes the uses of converters, which are furnaces in which oxygen is blown through a bath of molten metal, oxidizing the impurities...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... tank. The stream of concentrate and water enters the tank where the mineral particles settle to the bottom, and slowly revolving rakes move the mud-like deposit to a center discharge. The overflow, practically devoid of solids, can be returned to the process if dissolved reagents are not detrimental...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and practice of open-die forging, with some practical examples. The article illustrates macrosegregation in a large steel ingot and lists the forgeable alloys. It reviews the physical and mathematical models used in deformation modeling. The article explains the contour forging and roll planishing process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the corrosion damage in the scribed area of top coated/scribed specimens is the “Navy Scribe and Bold Surface Inspection Practice” ( Ref 8 ). This technique, described in Table 1 , involves dividing the scribe into segments (as shown in the accompanying figure in Table 1 ), and at each segment the minimum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., their practical benefit to improving casting processes is growing. Accurate calculation of fluid velocities, temperature, microstructure, and stress evolution is just the first step. Achieving tangible improvements to casting processes requires the accurate prediction of actual casting defects and product...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... have numerical problems with the application of the liquid hydrostatic pressure onto the new internal boundary of the solidified region. However, this simple strategy is very convenient for many practical problems, especially when the solidification front is stationary, such as the primary cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
.... Important features of the control-volume-based computational method that address the unique aspects of the VAR and ESR processes for obtaining an efficient and robust solution of the governing equations are then discussed. Applications of the models to practical VAR and ESR processes are presented next...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... not indicate that reaction kinetics are such that a reaction will occur or will occur at a significant rate. In practice, thermodynamic models are often limited by a lack of data under desired use conditions, such as in a pressurized coal gasifier, necessitating the use of assumptions. Discussion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the liquid and solid phases and the kinetics of solidification (nucleation and growth of various phases). The information linked to the practical interests that thermodynamics can provide when considering iron-base alloys encompasses a rather wide range. Only two issues are addressed in sections...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... There are, nevertheless, many limitations; for example, phase diagrams are readily available for no more than three constituents, while in practical cases of magnesia or dolomite basic refractories, one needs to characterize the CaO-MgO-FeO-Fe 2 O 3 -Cr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system. At any rate, for the basic refractories...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... steel cold-headed parts are bolts, studs, and hexagon-headed cap screws. Special cold-heading-quality steels are produced by closely controlled steelmaking practices to provide uniform chemical composition and internal soundness. Also, special processing (such as grinding) is applied at intermediate...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... if the alloy solidifies under equilibrium conditions (the lever rule is defined in the article “Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams” in this Volume). In practice, the lever rule usually will not give the volume fraction of the different phases, because the nucleation and growth kinetics, determined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... is produced by flattening of wire. In rolling shapes from cast billets of rectangular and round cross section, material flow is more complicated, but lubrication practices are not greatly different from those used in flat rolling. Rolling is essentially a steady-state process, from both the mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 The initial state of each one of the basic fields must be known as precisely as possible. In this regard, it is common practice to assume a uniform thermal field at the beginning of the quench; the initial metallurgical field may include a previously...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... good corrosion resistance and high-temperature stability of the coating. Aluminized steels are formed using the same general practices as are used for forming bare and zinc-galvanized sheet. There are two types of aluminized coatings commonly used on carbon and ferritic stainless steels, referred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.9781627081924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4