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iron-base superalloys

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005961
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... protective atmospheres used in heat treatment of iron-base precipitation-hardenable (PH) superalloys. It focuses on various factors to be considered in heat treating of PH stainless steels: cleaning prior to heat treatment, furnace atmospheres, time-temperature cycles, variations in cycles, and scale removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of iron-base superalloys and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the neutron irradiation effect, fracture mode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract The initial cast superalloy developments in the United States centered on cobalt-base materials. Nickel-base and nickel-iron-base superalloys owe their high-temperature strength potential to their gamma prime content. For polycrystalline superalloy components, high-temperature strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... hot-corrosion properties. iron-base alloys mechanical alloying oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys mechanically alloyed commercial alloys nickel-base alloys superalloy powder MECHANICAL ALLOYING (MA) was originally developed for the manufacture of nickel-base superalloys strengthened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article focuses on the properties of conventional wrought superalloys based on nickel, iron, and cobalt, as well as on the properties of alloys produced from powder. The powder metallurgy (P/M) category includes alloys that were originally developed as casting alloys; new alloy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Superalloys are nickel, iron-nickel, and cobalt-base alloys generally used for high-temperature applications. Superalloys are used in aircraft, industrial, marine gas turbines, nuclear reactors, spacecraft structures, petrochemical production, orthopedic and dental prostheses, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... steel. The remaining 1% is consumed in small quantities for use in ferroalloys, for iron chemical production, and for the precipitation of copper. Of the 24% consumed by foundries, iron foundries take 89%; steel foundries use the remaining 11%. Stainless steels are iron-base alloys that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... precipitate strengthening. Both classes of superalloys possess a disordered face-centered cubic γ matrix. The solid-solution-strengthened superalloys are primarily reinforced by additions of chromium, molybdenum, iron, and tungsten among other elements to the material. The precipitate-strengthened nickel-base...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... developed by Wilhelm Rohn in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s ( Ref 2 ). These nickel-iron-chromium alloys were developed primarily for heat and corrosion resistance and were an early application of vacuum induction melting ( Ref 3 ). Nonetheless, the vast majority of use by tonnage of nickel-base superalloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...-strengthened nickel superalloy relative to conventional dispersion-strengthened nickel superalloys and cast nickel-base alloys Once the assembly has been fabricated, it is normally put into service at temperatures of 760 to 1095 °C (1400 to 2000 °F). At these temperatures, the chromium (and sometimes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... including molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, and by precipitation of a Ni 3 (Al, Ti) type compound designated as gamma prime (γ′) and/or a metastable Ni 3 Nb precipitate designated as gamma double prime (γ″). Several iron-, iron-nickel, and cobalt-base compositions also meet the general description of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... techniques used in turbine rotor blade cooling For the past 28 years, high-pressure turbine blades and vanes have been made from cast nickel-base superalloys. The higher-strength alloys are hardened by a combination of approximately 60 vol% γ′ [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] precipitated in a γ matrix, with solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article summarizes the general features of microstructure evolution during the thermomechanical processing (TMP) of nickel-base superalloys and the challenges posed by the modeling of such phenomena. It describes the fundamentals and implementations of various modeling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... superalloys, namely, iron-nickel superalloys, nickel-base alloys, cobalt-base alloys, and powder alloys. The article discusses the microstructural mechanisms during hot deformation and presents processing maps for various superalloys. It concludes with a discussion on heat treatment of wrought heat-resistant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...., Academic Press , 1989 , p 439 – 489 10.1016/B978-0-12-690845-9.50020-8 17. Wright I.G. , “Oxidation of Iron-, Nickel-, and Cobalt-Base Alloys,” MCIC 72-07, Metals and Ceramics Information Center , June 1972 18. Barrett C.A. , “A Statistical Analysis of Elevated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... superalloys, along with iron-base and cobalt-base superalloys, are used throughout the engines in wrought, cast, powder metallurgy (P/M), and cast single-crystal forms to meet the requirements imposed by the aircraft industry. Nickel-base superalloys were created at approximately the turn of the century...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... corrosion and good weldability. Iron-base superalloys are typically used for disks and lower-temperature blades, vanes, and shrouds. Stainless steels, both austenitic and martensitic, are used for lower-temperature static parts, fuel nozzles, and sometimes disks. Low-alloy steels are sometimes used for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... their strength mostly from solid-solution alloying, work hardening, and precipitated phases. The principal strengthening precipitates are the Ni 3 Al gamma prime (γ′) and the Ni 3 Nb gamma double-prime (γ″) intermetallic phases that occur in iron-nickel- and nickel-base alloys. Carbides also may provide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005886
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract This article discusses special considerations relative to induction heating of stainless steels and nickel-base superalloys. It focuses on the various industrial and high-temperature applications of induction heating to stainless steel and superalloy components, namely, primary melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... relatively small heat-affected zone (HAZ). The low heat input allows for hardfacing of more challenging materials, such as spherical tungsten carbide-based composite ( Fig. 13 ), and the hardfacing of nonstandard substrates, such as chrome white irons or superalloys. The relatively low heat input during...