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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the mechanical and nonmechanical cutting methods used in metal fabrication industries. The most prevalent equipment used for mechanical cutting includes shears, iron workers, nibblers, and band saws. Nonmechanical methods of cutting include gas cutting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... shears, iron workers, nibblers, and band saws. The article provides details on each of these. band saws fixturing guillotine machines iron workers knife rake mechanical cutting nibblers punching machines shearing machines shears straight-knife shearing welding OXYFUEL AND PLASMA...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Cutoff Machines” in this article). Iron workers ( Fig. 3 ) are heavy-duty shears used primarily for preparing structural shapes such as bars, angles, and T-bars. Like the shears used for plate and flat sheet, iron workers leave a square butt edge that may require further preparation for heavier...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel; (2) essential metals with potential for toxicity, including cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc; (3) metals with toxicity related to medical therapy, including aluminum, bismuth, gallium, gold, lithium, and platinum; and (4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005858
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... – 20 0.13–2 Fluorescent tube 40–400 0.5 – 2 0.02–0.25 Microwave oven 73–23 4 – 8 0.25–0.6 Portable radio 16–56 1 <0.01 Electric oven 1–50 0.15 – 0.5 0.01–0.04 Washing machine 0.8–50 0.15 – 3 0.01–0.15 Iron 8–30 0.12 – 0.3 0.01–0.03 Dishwasher 3.5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of air by volume at 25 °C (77 °F) and 760 mm Hg pressure. These values should not be regarded as precise boundaries between safe and dangerous concentrations. They represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... required to perform a shim stock test in an atmosphere furnace. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 2 Effect of carbon content in iron-carbon alloys on the martensite start (M s ) temperature, the relative proportions of lath and plate martensite, and the volume percent retained austenite. Source: Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of stray current for some common construction metals are 6.5 lb (2.95 kg) for aluminum, 20 lb (9.1 kg) for steel or iron, 24.5 lb (11.1 kg) for zinc, 45 lb (20.4 kg) for copper, and 74.5 lb (33.8 kg) for lead. This metal loss can also be expressed as a surface corrosion or penetration rate in mils per year...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... are providing metal workers with many alternatives traditional grinding operations in generating smooth, close-tolerance surfaces. By the same token, the creep-feed grinding process, especially the “continuous dress” version, can effect extremely high rates of stock removal while generating very close size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Abstract Abstract Ferrous metals are metals that contain primarily iron and may have small amounts of other elements added to give the desired properties. This article discuses the characteristics of steel products used in most industries, including construction, automotive, energy, shipping...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... (a) Light micrograph. (b) SEM of the surface of the porous layer. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 6 Deposition of iron-rich crystals on Stellite 6 sheet after ∼5000 h in flowing sodium at 600 °C (1110 °F). Courtesy of H.U. Borgstedt, Karlsruhe Nuclear Center Experience in Systems Exposed to Liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...; their communities; and their cultures. Who were these people? In what types of society did they live? Were they full-time or part-time workers? Were they self-employed or employees of the state, of an aristocracy, or of a ruler? To what extent was there social stratification and differentiation? Were these family...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... as novel, the original concept was reported, and a patent application filed, in 1941 ( Ref 1 ). The technology was dormant until the late 1950s, when the process was rediscovered by Russian workers ( Ref 2 ). A review of the literature has identified a wide variety of applications that utilized the process...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... The heavy-duty machines used to shear bars are commonly referred to as “iron workers.” These machines include alligator shears and guillotine shears. Alligator Shears Alligator shears are so named because the action resembles that of an alligator's jaw. In an alligator shear, the lower knife...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Zapffe C.A. and Worden C.O. , Temperature and Stress Rate Affect Fractology of Ferrite Stainless , Iron Age , Vol 167 ( No. 26 ), 1951 , p 65 – 69 4. McCall J.L. , Electron Fractography—Tools and Techniques , in Electron Fractography , STP 436, American Society for Testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., or a combination of these, according to conditions. Sulfides are highly corrosive to many materials. In the case of iron and mild steel, the characteristic black iron sulfide (FeS) corrosion products liberate H 2 S on acid treatment, distinguishing them from black iron oxide (magnetite). The corrosion products...
Book Chapter

By Bo Hu
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... health and child development ( Ref 2 ): Anemic women and their infants are at greater risk of dying during the perinatal period. Mental and physical development of children is delayed or impaired by iron deficiency. The physical work capacity and productivity of manual workers may be reduced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... health risks, another solution considered by Granger and co-workers is the reduction of iron levels to prevent the formation of π ( Ref 2 ). From the work on alloying to reduce the formation of the π intermetallic, seven different versions of 357 alloys have been registered with the Aluminum...