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iridium plating

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... these PGMs along with the types of anodes used in the process. anodes electrolytes electroplating iridium plating osmium plating palladium plating platinum plating platinum-group metal anodes rhodium plating ruthenium plating THE SIX PLATINUM-GROUP METALS (PGMs), listed in order of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... part being processed. Stainless steel is much more durable, but it dissolves in some plating solutions, and after a short time it changes the characteristics of the electrolyte being used. Platinum-iridium, platinum-clad niobium, and platinum-clad titanium are inert to all of the electrolytes used in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the use of noble and precious metals for biomedical applications. The noble metals include gold, platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, and osmium. The physical and mechanical properties of the noble and precious metals are presented in tables. A...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Precious metals include gold, silver, and six platinum-group metals, namely, platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and iridium. This article focuses on the consumption, trade practices, properties, product forms, and applications of these metals and their alloys. gold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article characterizes the corrosion resistance of precious metals, namely, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold. It provides a discussion on the general fabricability; atomic, structural, physical, and mechanical properties; oxidation and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... initially because of the usual high tensile stress in rhodium plate. Reducing this stress is more effective in achieving adherence of the rhodium strike than are efforts to reduce the thickness of the natural oxide on TZM. Iridium coatings about 12 μm (475 μin.) thick, plated in a fused cyanide bath, over...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., tungsten, and rhenium. With the exception of two of the platinum-group metals, osmium and iridium, the refractory metals have the highest melting temperatures (>2000 °C, or 3630 °F) and the lowest vapor pressures of all metals. They are readily degraded by oxidizing environments at moderately low...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... segregation are shown for tungsten, iridium, and a tungsten-rhenium alloy in Fig. 20 . Fig. 20 Intergranular brittle fractures in tungsten, iridium, and a tungsten-3 wt% rhenium alloy. (a) Sintered tungsten rod drawn to 1.5 mm (0.060 in.) diam, recrystallized for 100 h at 10 −6 torr and 2600 °C (4712...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... that are available for special applications. Fig. 4 Scanning tunneling microscope images of evaporated C 60 film on gold-coated freshly cleaved mica using a mechanically sheared platinum-iridium (80/20) tip in constant-height mode. Source: Ref 125 . © IOP Publishing. Reproduced with permission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... substitute joints such as hips and knees that have degenerated from normal wear and tear or to augment healing with the use of plates and screws for traumatic injuries. Biomaterials may also be used to treat pathology such as atherosclerosis with stents or dental caries with alloys. Although the tissues and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., plates, tubes, crucibles, sleeves, and other auxiliary aids are applied in the field of apparatus construction. The properties of CCCs are also useful as tool segments, pressure plates, and resistance elements in hot sintering applications. In some industries, these composites are applied to replace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in direct contact with the back of the weld. When the film is developed, gas pockets, slag inclusions, cracks, or poor penetration are visible on the film. Conventional radiography, which uses x-ray machines or radioactive isotopes such as iridium-192 and cobalt-60 for generating penetrating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... applications, as discussed in detail in the article “Chemical Vapor Deposition of Semiconductor Materials” in this Section of the Volume. In addition, it is being introduced in wear and corrosion applications. An example of a nonsemiconductor application of MOCVD is the deposition of iridium via the...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Platinum 75 150 Palladium 250 450 Rhodium 8 12 Iridium 1 3 Ruthenium 71 100 Osmium 1 (a) 1 (a) All osmium is included in this number. Source: U.S. Bureau of Mines Many of the techniques discussed for processing precious metals recycled from electronics...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 0.239 Beryllium 1.848 0.067 Bismuth 9.80 0.354 Cadmium 8.65 0.313 Calcium 1.55 0.056 Cesium 1.903 0.069 Chromium 7.19 0.260 Cobalt 8.85 0.322 Gallium 5.907 0.213 Germanium 5.323 0.192 Hafnium 13.1 0.473 Indium 7.31 0.264 Iridium 22.5 0.813...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...) produced by an x-ray tube, γ-ray sources emit one or more discrete wavelengths of radiation, each having its own characteristic photon energy. The three most common γ-ray sources (or radioactive isotopes) used in radiography are cobalt-60, cesium-137, and iridium-192. Cobalt-60 comes from thermal neutron...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... FOUR OF THE PLATINUM METALS—platinum, palladium, rhodium, and iridium—have the face-centered cubic crystal structure, which is usually associated with ductility. Yet only platinum and palladium can be cold worked from the cast condition. Rhodium must be broken down at a high temperature before it can...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... chemical behavior (will react with acids). But as stated above, because of the chemical activities of the metallic elements, thin oxides rapidly form on freshly bare surfaces of most metals. Ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold are the exceptions. These eight metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... resistance ( Ref 42 ), whereas the addition of rhodium is thought to increase both coating stability and oxidation resistance ( Ref 43 ). However, the performance of iridium-modified aluminides has rarely been reported in the open literature. Iridium exhibits relatively low oxidation rates, compared to other...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (b) 0.003 13 ( 1 2 ) Iridium-192 74 d 12 rays from 0.21–0.61 0.48 75 (3) Cesium-137 33 yr 0.66 0.32 75 (3) Cobalt-60 5.3 yr 1.17 and 1.33 1.3 230 (9) (a) Output for typical unshielded, encapsulated sources: RHM/Ci, roentgens per hour at 1 m per Curie. (b...