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ionic liquids

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...Abstract Abstract This article introduces the structure, tribological properties, advantages, and applications of ionic liquids (ILs) as lubricating media. It discusses the mechanisms of IL lubrication for different contacts. The advances in studies focusing on tribological properties of a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of friction. The article details the classifications of lubrication regimes, namely, boundary, mixed, hydrodynamic, and elastohydrodynamic lubrications. It discusses the various types of lubricant materials and additives, including liquid lubricants, solid lubricants, gaseous lubricants, greases, green...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... condition limitations. The PFPE oils and fluoropolymer greases expand the operational range of liquid- and grease-type lubrication shown in Fig. 1 . Ionic liquids may also be able to expand the operational range of liquid- and grease-type lubrication. These materials are salts with melting points lower...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-Resistant Coatings X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Analysis of a Surface Contamination on a Steel Sample Applications in Ionic Liquid Characterization Coatings and Thin Films Polymers XPS analysis can be effectively used to study the surface composition of lithium battery electrodes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... that have been or could be demonstrated using one of the described technologies. L = liquid metal ion source, liquid metal alloy ion source, or ionic liquid ion source; C = cold atom ion source (e.g., magneto-optical trap ion source, low-temperature ion source, etc.); G = gas field ion source; P = plasma...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... units. For example in NaCl, a sodium atom gives up its sole valence electron, and the chlorine ion captures it, to produce ions having full electron orbitals or suborbitals. As a consequence there are no “free” electrons available to conduct electricity. In the liquid state, however, ionic materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...–7037 23 42 Mechanically Tunable, Readily Processable Ion Gels by Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers in Ionic Liquids Lodge, T.P.; Ueki, T. 2016 Accounts of Chemical Research , Vol 49 (No. 10), p 2107–2114 44 39 Fabrication and Electrical Properties of All-Printed Carbon Nanotube Thin Film...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Abstract Abstract Potentiometric membrane electrodes are electrochemical devices that can be used to quantify numerous ionic and nonionic species. This class of electrochemical sensors can be divided into ion-selective and gas-sensing membrane electrodes. The first half of this article mainly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., structures) whereas noncrystalline solids exhibit no long-range periodicity. The atomic and molecular components of both crystalline and noncrystalline solids are held together by a series of strong primary (i.e., ionic, covalent, and metallic) and/or weak secondary (i.e., hydrogen and Van der Waals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... is synthesized from highly processed chemicals beyond those directly from the crude-oil refining stream. Some base oils being studied use exploratory fluids such as ionic liquids ( Ref 12 ) and synthetic base stocks ( Ref 13 ); for example, water-base ionic liquids and some environmentally friendly biological...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... for defining retention, peak width, and resolution. Fig. 1 Essential components of a liquid chromatograph. Fig. 4 Reversed-phase chromatograms of an organic mixture. (a) Using a methyl column. (b) Using an octyl column. (c) Using an octadecyl column. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 5 Ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of confidence required. For liquid molded parts, including those made via resin transfer molding (RTM), SCRIMP (TPI Technology Inc., Warren, RI), or vacuum-assisted RTM (VARTM), resin flow paints much of the picture. Current sensor-based process control procedures use dielectric sensing ( Ref 3 , 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... + Industrial manufacturing Metal plating solution, paper bleaching solutions, fertilizers pH, Cu 2+ , Ag, Au, NO 3 − , Ca 2+ , K + , Na + , NH 4 + Environmental monitoring Natural, industrial, waste waters, soil, plants, human and animal tissues pH, Pb 2+ , Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , NO 3 − , ionic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... those ideas to developing or improving materials, and the engineer with taking these materials and building something from them, all three use common terminology. Materials are either solids or fluids. Fluids (gases and liquids) are the principal agents of corrosion. The characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in aqueous environments or other ionically conducting liquids is almost always electrochemical in nature. It occurs when two or more electrochemical reactions take place on a metal surface. One of these reactions results in the change of the metal or some elements in the metal alloy from a metallic state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article provides information on various forms of corrosion that occur in electronic packaging. Portable consumer electronic hardware which is subjected to humidity exposures is prone to condensed moisture and liquid damage. The article discusses two other corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... electrolysis, ionic liquid electrolyte, and zone refining Typical voltage components in an aluminum electrolysis cell Table 1 Typical voltage components in an aluminum electrolysis cell Measured directly Cell component Volt V an Yes Anode voltage drop 0.30 E rev...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Molten salts, in contrast to aqueous solutions in which an electrolyte (acid, base, salt) is dissolved in a molecular solvent, are essentially completely ionic. This article begins with an overview of the thermodynamics of cells and classification of electrodes for molten...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... detection, and amperometric electrochemical detection. It describes the modes of separation techniques in IC and reversed-phase IC. The article discusses the detection capabilities of IC, the procedures for preparing solid and liquid samples, as well as the applications of IC. Selected References...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... R.D. , J. Resin Develop ., Vol 32 ( No. 5 ), Sept 1988 8. Hare C.H. , The Permeability of Coatings to Oxygen, Gases, and Ionic Solutions , J. Prot. Coatings Linings , Nov 1997 9. Phull B. , Pikul S. , and Kain R. , Thirty-Eight Years of Atmospheric...