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ion implantation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Ion implantation involves the bombardment of a solid material with medium-to-high-energy ionized atoms and offers the ability to alloy virtually any elemental species into the near-surface region of any substrate. This article describes the fundamentals of the ion implantation process...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... implantation in the context of research and development applications. corrosion-resistant coatings ion implantation ion plating physical vapor deposition sputtering thermal evaporation wear-resistant coatings PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (PVD) processes involve the formation of a coating on a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... oxidation resistance through the use of polishing, buffing, and wire brushing operations. The article also covers a wide range of surface modification and coating processes, including ion implantation, diffusion, chemical and physical vapor deposition, plating, anodizing, and chemical conversion coatings as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... information on the applicable methods for surface engineering of cutting tools, namely, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) coatings, physical vapor deposited coatings, plasma-assisted CVD coatings, diamond coatings, and ion implantation. builtup edge carbides ceramics cermets chemical vapor deposited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electrocleaning electroplating electropolishing emulsion cleaning finishing flame hardening grinding ion implantation laser surface processing mechanical cleaning nitriding painting passivation salt bath descaling solvent cleaning stainless steel surface blackening surface modification surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... steel chromate conversion coatings chromium plating cleaning conversion coatings electrochemical finishing electrogalvanizing electroless nickel plating electroplating finishing hardfacing heat treatment high-strength low-alloy steel hot dip coatings ion implantation laser surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... effects of ion implantation and electronic excitation on the charge of the sputtered species. The design and operation of the various instrumental components of SIMS is then reviewed. Details on a depth-profiling analysis of SIMS, the quantitative analysis of SIMS data, and the static mode of operation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., where unequal distribution of the load between the implant and the bone around it may lead to reabsorption. Other physiological reasons for implant rejection could be leaching out of ions (metals), degradation of material due to interaction with enzymes (polymers), and inadequate encapsulation of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... metallic implants polarization resistance potentiodynamic measurement potentiostatic deaeration Tafel extrapolation THE INTERACTION OF AN IMPLANT with the human body environment may result in degradation of the implant, called corrosion. The reactions usually also cause a release of metal ions and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... has a uniform flux over a large area, depending on the diameter of the ion extraction apertures (typically, 30 to 80 mm, or 1.2 to 3.1 in.). The energy levels for beams from an ion implanter are 20 to 100 keV. Large areas are obtained by rastering the beam over the exposed surfaces. Research indicates...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... precipitate and form voids. Neither should it be high enough to cause excessive sputtering. For low-temperature deposition, the ion energy should not exceed about 300 eV (48 aJ). If the substrate is heated to 400 °C (750 °F) or greater, the energy can be increased, because the implanted ions are continually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article is intended to provide the reader with a good understanding of the underlying science, technology, and the most common applications of focused ion beam (FIB) instruments. It begins with a survey of the various types of FIB instruments and their configurations, discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...), bone fracture (5% of failures), and unavoidable surgical error (3% of failures) ( Ref 2 ). Implant debris comes in only two forms: particles and ions, where ions are generally bound to serum proteins. However, the inflammatory responses that lead to implant failure are generally attributed to particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... titanium. Other alloys are designed specifically for implant applications. For example, implant alloys must address potential concerns regarding adverse reactions from the release of metal ions into the body. The development trend of titanium alloys for biomedical implants is to eliminate potentially toxic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...-metal bearings were much higher than normal baseline levels of the metal ions measured before surgery or in patients without implants. Despite these findings, there is little evidence of long-term adverse effects due to the levels of metal ions. Many of the original case reports describing elevated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... mechanism are complex and not well understood. The presence of the chlorine ion (a component of the salt in sea water) makes this type of corrosion a problem in salt waters. %Cr greater than 20 %Mo greater than 1 (a) Source: Ref 3 Type 316L steel has molybdenum added plus a reduced percent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... to as a foreign body response); if the material is in the form of a particulate, the response may include multinucleated monocytes (foreign body giant cells) and is referred to as a granuloma ( Ref 3 ). If the device requires the flow of ions or molecules at the interface, for example, glucose sensor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... composites. A discussion on natural materials, nanomaterials, and stem cells is also provided. The article concludes with information on examples of biomaterials applications, including endovascular devices, knee implants, and neurostimulation. biocompatibility biomaterials cardiac pacemakers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... functional sense. However, even on the microscopic scale, localized plastic deformation, though sometimes unavoidable, may nevertheless create focal points for initiation of CF and/or SCC, or else potential biocompatibility problems arising from stress-enhanced ion release. Furthermore, the key to preventing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... various metals is believed to be due to the formation of organo-complexes, which are a result of protein interactions with the ions released from the implants. The effectiveness of the passive layer is determined by the rate of ion transfer through the film. Consequently, several parameters, such as...