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invariant transformation structure

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Solid-state transformations from invariant reactions are of three types: eutectoid, peritectoid, and monotectoid transformations. This article focuses on structures from eutectoid transformations with an emphasis on the classic iron-carbon system of steel. It illustrates the morphology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
.... Invariant Transformation Structures , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2004 , p 152 – 164 5. Hillert M. , Keynote Address: Eutectic and Peritectic Solidification , Solidification and Castings of Metals , The Metals Society , London , 1979...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Eutectoid and peritectoid transformations are classified as solid-state invariant transformations. This article focuses primarily on the structures from eutectoid transformations with emphasis on the classic iron-carbon system of steel. It reviews peritectoid phase equilibria...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... crystal structure. Structures from invariant reactions are discussed in the article “Invariant Transformation Structures” in this Volume. Fig. 1 Equilibrium phase diagrams illustrating various conditions for precipitation of a second phase. In all cases, the matrix of the two-phase product has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... structure and are characterized by the chemical invariance between parent and product phases. These transformations can occur both on heating and cooling, although the mechanism requires rapid heating and cooling rates; as such, the ability of atoms to diffuse the long distances typical of diffusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... This distinctive morphology is a type of eutectoid structure (as briefly described in the section “The Iron-Carbon Eutectoid” in this article and in the separate article “Invariant Transformation Structures” in this Volume). The key point is that equilibrium phase diagrams are important in identifying phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... growth. The article also describes the various types of solid-state transformations such as isothermal transformation and athermal transformation, resulting from the heat treatment of nonferrous alloys. It provides information on the homogenization of chemical composition within a cast structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
.... age hardening allotropy alloying aluminum-copper system binary system Clausius-Clapeyron equation crystal structure Gibbs phase rule heat treatment iron-carbon phase diagram Lever rule phase diagram polymorphism solid-state transformation solidification ternary diagrams Theorem of Le...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...), that is, their structure transforms from one crystal structure to another with changes in temperature and pressure, each unique structure constituting a distinctively separate phase. The term allotropy (existing in another form) is usually used to describe polymorphic changes in chemical elements (see the table 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Martensite is a metastable structure that forms during athermal (nonisothermal) conditions. This article reviews the crystallographic theory, morphologies, orientation relationships, habit plane, and transformation temperature of ferrous martensite microstructures. It examines...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... to the morphological transformation that occurs in the eutectic phases of aluminum-silicon alloys upon addition of trace quantities of certain elements, such as strontium or sodium, and converts the otherwise platelike (flake) silicon phase, shown in Fig. 9 , to the fine, fibrous (corallike) structure of Fig. 9...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of peritectic phase diagram ( Fig. 4 ) have been identified based on the shape of the peritectic (β) solid-solution region ( Ref 11 ). Additional information is available in the article “Invariant Transformation Structures” in Metallography and Microstructures , Volume 9 of ASM Handbook . Fig. 4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... diagram of this type probably does not exist. (b) and (c) Typical eutectic diagrams for (b) components having the same crystal structure and (c) components having different crystal structures; the eutectic (invariant) points are labeled E . The dashed lines in (b) and (c) are metastable extensions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Monotectic phase diagram showing the invariant point, m , where liquid 1 ( L 1 ) transforms to another liquid ( L 2 ) and solid solution (α). Adapted from Ref 1 Liquid copper and liquid lead are completely soluble in each other at high temperatures. However, as shown in the Fig. 2 phase diagram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... temperatures. With decreasing temperature, the disordered fcc phase transforms to ordered intermetallic phases at the compositions of Cu 0.25 Au 0.75 and Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 (with an ordered cubic structure designated as L1 2 ) and that of Cu 0.5 Au 0.5 (with a tetragonal structure designated as L1 0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... is almost always heterogeneous. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs at structural defects such as grain boundaries, dislocations, and interstitial atoms. During a solid-state phase transformation, at least one new phase is normally formed that has different physical/chemical characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... modeling in the context of this changing materials engineering environment. Consonant with this view, Fig. 1 depicts the spatiotemporal hierarchy of first-order displacive transformations. Blocks at the left represent interactive levels of structure, both preceding and generated by the transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and the phase transformations that change the structure and properties at varying levels of carbon content. Microstructures described include pearlite, bainite, proeutectoid ferrite and cementite, ferrite-pearlite, and martensite. The article depicts some of the primary processing steps that result in ferrite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... (a) (a) C = % carbon. Source: Ref 2 Constitution of Iron The atoms in solids typically arrange themselves into a unique crystal structure under equilibrium conditions, but some elements and compounds have polymorphic (multishaped) crystal structures. That is, their structure transforms from one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of structured scene Best for qualitative interpretation of complex, unstructured scene Evaluation of machine and human vision capabilities Table 2 Evaluation of machine and human vision capabilities Performance criteria Machine vision Human vision Resolution Limited by pixel array size...