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invariant transformation structure

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... invariant reactions are of three types: eutectoid, peritectoid, and monotectoid transformations. This article focuses on structures from eutectoid transformations with an emphasis on the classic iron-carbon system of steel. It illustrates the morphology of a pearlite nodule and the effect of various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... structure that was originally Sb 2 Sn 3 but has decomposed to β + Sn. Original magnification: 50×. Source: Ref 4 Abstract Abstract Similar to the eutectic group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a solid phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... invariant transformations. This article focuses primarily on the structures from eutectoid transformations with emphasis on the classic iron-carbon system of steel. It reviews peritectoid phase equilibria that are very common in several binary systems. The addition of substitutional alloying elements causes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... into a matrix with a different crystal structure. Structures from invariant reactions are discussed in the article “Invariant Transformation Structures” in this Volume. The length scale of precipitate structures can be quite varied. For example, iron-nickel meteorites that undergo very slow cooling can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...×. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 11 Schematic binary phase diagram illustrating the effect of cooling rate on an alloy lying outside the equilibrium eutectic transformation line. Rapid solidification from S x to a metastable position (S*) can result in some eutectic structure being formed, because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., and grain growth. The article also describes the various types of solid-state transformations such as isothermal transformation and athermal transformation, resulting from the heat treatment of nonferrous alloys. It provides information on the homogenization of chemical composition within a cast structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... a transition in crystal structure and are characterized by the chemical invariance between parent and product phases. These transformations can occur both on heating and cooling, although the mechanism requires rapid heating and cooling rates; as such, the ability of atoms to diffuse the long distances typical...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... based on the shape of the peritectic (β) solid-solution region ( Ref 11 ). Additional information is available in the article “Invariant Transformation Structures” in Metallography and Microstructures , Volume 9 of ASM Handbook . Fig. 4 Types of peritectic systems. (a) Type A system where...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the equilibrium eutectic-transformation line. Rapid solidification into a terminal phase field can result in some eutectic structure being formed; homogenization at temperatures in the single-phase field will eliminate the eutectic structure; β phase will precipitate out of solution upon slow cooling into the α...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
.... age hardening allotropy alloying aluminum-copper system binary system Clausius-Clapeyron equation crystal structure Gibbs phase rule heat treatment iron-carbon phase diagram Lever rule phase diagram polymorphism solid-state transformation solidification ternary diagrams Theorem of Le...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-silicon alloys upon addition of trace quantities of certain elements, such as strontium or sodium, and converts the otherwise platelike (flake) silicon phase, shown in Fig. 9 , to the fine, fibrous (corallike) structure of Fig. 9 . This morphological transformation significantly enhances the mechanical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... at invariant point P ; an actual diagram of this type probably does not exist. (b) and (c) Typical eutectic diagrams for (b) components having the same crystal structure and (c) components having different crystal structures; the eutectic (invariant) points are labeled E . The dashed lines in (b) and (c...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Table 3 Nonferrous martensite transformations for selected systems Material systems General parent crystal structure General martensite crystal structure Metals Ag alloys (Ag-Cd, Ag-Ge, Ag-Zn) bcc 3R, 9R, 2H Au alloys (Au-Cd, Au-Cu-Zn, Au-Zn) bcc 3R, 9R, 2H Co alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... transforms to ordered intermetallic phases at the compositions of Cu 0.25 Au 0.75 and Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 (with an ordered cubic structure designated as L1 2 ) and that of Cu 0.5 Au 0.5 (with a tetragonal structure designated as L1 0 ). The degree of ordering in these phases increases with further decreasing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... further be transformed into a distance map. Although several techniques exist that are based on stereo vision, the technique is still limited due to image and object requirements. Nevertheless, stereo vision can be applied when the 3-D structure of a surface is under assessment, for instance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... property models. metals and alloys phase diagram quench distortion solidification thermodynamic properties MODELING AND SIMULATION of materials processing often requires specific information concerning phase transformations and thermodynamic properties, for example, liquidus and solidus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
.... , The Structure of IN100 , Trans. ASM , Vol 57 , 1964 , p 110 – 119 27. Ross E.W. , Rene 100—A Sigma-Free Turbine Blade Alloy , J. Met. , Vol 19 ( No. 12 ), 1967 , p 12 – 14 28. Darolia R. , Lahrman D.F. , and Field R.D. , Formation of Topologically Closed Packed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... in structural applications. brittle materials ceramics density function theory fabrication graphites intermetallics tensile strength Weibull distribution BRITTLE MATERIALS (e.g., ceramics, intermetallics, and graphites) are increasingly being used in the fabrication of lightweight components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
...Binary alloys exhibiting complete solid solubility Table 1 Binary alloys exhibiting complete solid solubility Elements Radius ratio Closeness of position in EM series (a) , V Similarity of valence Relative position in periodic chart Structure of both elements (b) Ag-Au 1.002...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Fig. 1 Monotectic phase diagram showing the invariant point, m , where liquid 1 ( L 1 ) transforms to another liquid ( L 2 ) and solid solution (α). Adapted from Ref 1 Fig. 2 Monotectic reaction in copper-lead system. Source: Ref 2 as published in Ref 3 Fig. 3...