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interstitial reaction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article examines a type of corrosion that occurs when solids (primarily metals) are exposed to liquid metal environments. It describes the principle mechanisms of liquid metal corrosion, including dissolution, impurity and interstitial reactions, alloying, and compound reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... evaluation of dental materials are summarized. The article examines the effects of restoration contact on electrochemical parameters and reviews the concentration cells developed by dental alloy-environment electrochemical reactions. The composition and characterization of biofilms, corrosion products, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of high-temperature corrosion. The thermodynamics of high-temperature corrosion reactions reveals what reactions are possible under certain conditions and kinetics explains how fast these possible reactions will...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... hardening. alloying cast iron chemical reactions decarburization ferrite induction hardening isothermal phase transformation steel THE REACTIONS OF METAL ALLOYS with the environment generally are surface reactions, and it is common that the reactants and products progressively disturb or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
..., nucleation in solid-state reactions is almost always heterogeneous. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs at structural defects such as grain boundaries, dislocations, and interstitial atoms. During a solid-state phase transformation, at least one new phase is normally formed that has different physical/chemical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... endothermic, pressure-sensitive decomposition reaction outside the blast furnace. The primary function of the flux is to combine with the gangue comprising silica and alumina in the ore, sulfur, and ash in the coke. Formation and separation of molten slag by this combination enables the production of liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... zone is largely featureless, still grain boundaries from the austenite are observed to continue into the expanded austenite, in particular in the region close to the reaction front. These observations are consistent with the development of a case of expanded austenite merely by the dissolution of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Solid-state transformations from invariant reactions are of three types: eutectoid, peritectoid, and monotectoid transformations. This article focuses on structures from eutectoid transformations with an emphasis on the classic iron-carbon system of steel. It illustrates the morphology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Similar to the eutectic group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a solid phase on cooling through the peritectic isotherm. This article describes the equilibrium freezing and nonequilibrium freezing of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic data within DICTRA DICTRA is a general code and can treat not only phase transformations, that is, moving boundary problems, but also diffusion in one-phase systems and reactions in dispersed systems. DICTRA has been used to make the calculations referenced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides a general introduction to the kinetics of aqueous corrosion with an emphasis on electrochemical principles. It describes the thermodynamic basis for corrosion by determining the equilibrium potentials of electrochemical reactions from the Nernst equation. A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the rate of reaction. Fig. 1 Defects in ionic crystals. (a) Schottky defect. (b) Frenkel defect. Vacancies (V X , V Me ) are indicated by open squares. Interstitial ion (Me i ) is shown as shaded circle. Frenkel defects are combinations of cation vacancies, interstitial cations, and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... amount of β-phase formed by the peritectic reaction will be negligible in comparison with the precipitation of β from the liquid. For body-centered cubic metals and for interstitially dissolved alloying elements, the diffusion rates are much higher than for substitutionally dissolved elements in face...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract When metal is exposed to an oxidizing gas at elevated temperature, corrosion can occur by direct reaction with the gas, without the need for the presence of a liquid electrolyte. This type of corrosion is referred to as high-temperature gaseous corrosion. This article describes the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... reactions: Fe-C-Cr and nickel-base superalloy. microsegregation nickel-base superalloy solute redistribution equilibrium solidification nonequilibrium Gulliver-Scheil solidification nonequilibrium back diffusion solidification microsegregation kinetics titanium-molybdenum isomorphous systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract This article summarizes the terminology for gas reactions, and discusses low-temperature nitriding and nitrocarburizing of stainless steels. It describes the various nitriding processes, namely, high- and low-pressure nitriding, oxynitriding, sulfonitriding, oxysulfonitriding, ferritic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... substitution reactions. The article also describes the corrosion resistance of nonmetallic materials such as rubber and elastomeric materials, plastics, carbon and graphite, and ceramic materials. chemical conversion carbon steel aluminum carbon cast iron ceramic materials copper copper alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... greater than 4 are β stabilizing. Titanium and its alloys react with several interstitial elements including oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen gases. Such reactions may occur at temperatures well below the respective melting points. The titanium-rich sections of pseudobinary systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... analytical chemistry. Mechanical methods and nonoxidizing acids and/or acid mixtures for dissolving solid samples for wet chemical analysis are then reviewed. Qualitative methods that are used to identify materials by wet chemical reaction are also included. The article provides information on various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... article describes the specific microstructure/property relationships that are used to make specific properties available to the designers of structural applications. It provides the examples of phase diagrams that illustrate eutectic and peritectic reactions. aluminum beryllium chemical properties...