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interlaminar cracking

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... intralaminar flaws. (b) Effective interlaminar flaws Fig. 32 Strain energy release rate coefficients, C ε , for interfacial cracking in the 90°/90° and the–25°/ 90° interfaces of the [±25°/90°] s laminate Fig. 33 Strain energy release rate coefficients, C T , for interfacial cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... illustrate the ductile fracture, interlaminar failure, transgranular cleavage and fracture, tension-overload fracture, longitudinal and transverse cracking, fiber splitting, stress rupture, and low-cycle fatigue of these composites. ductile to brittle transition fractograph metal-matrix composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... at onset of nonlinearity, onset of visible stable crack growth, and onset of fast fracture, respectively. Fig. 45 Split-Hopkinson pressure bar testing to determine the interlaminar shear properties of composites. (a) Optimum design of a single lap specimen. (b) Arrangement of the Hopkinson...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... that failed in compression. 1800× Fig. 1 River patterns on the surface of a mode I tensile failure in a carbon/epoxy (AS4/3501-6) composite laminate. Overall crack growth direction is from left to right. 1000× Fig. 2 Mode I tension interlaminar fractures that propagated at various angles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... 7 Structural configurations with high interlaminar stresses. σ z is tensile stress and τ xz is shear stress. Fig. 3 Radiograph of graphite/epoxy laminate using image-enhancing penetrant to reveal transverse and longitudinal cracking and local delaminations Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... , Sept 2000 , p 991 – 998 10. O'Brien T.K. , Composite Interlaminar Shear Fracture Toughness, G IIc : Shear Measurement or Sheer Myth? , Composite Materials: Fatigue and Fracture, Seventh Volume , STP 1330, ASTM , 1998 , p 3 – 18 11. Lee S.M. , An Edge Crack Torsion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... failure mode, initiation site, crack growth direction, and all environmental influences on the failure. For now, it is sufficient to say that translaminar fractures can exhibit tensile, compressive, shear, flexural, or fatigue failure modes, while intra- and interlaminar fractures can exhibit both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... in the adhesive. Resin-matrix composites are often sawed and then routed to final dimension, or cut by water jet. While the cut surface may appear smooth, interlaminar cracks may be introduced because of the poor interlaminar strength of resin-matrix composites. Even if no cracks are present, the free edge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...-Reinforced Polyester , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol 12 , 1977 7. Parvizi A. and Baily J.E. , On Multiple Transverse Cracking in Glass Fiber Epoxy Cross-Ply Laminates , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol 13 , 1978 8. Pagano N.J. and Pipes R.B. , Some Observations on the Interlaminar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.../2220-3 graphite/epoxy laminate showing damage due to impact with energy of 40 J (30 ft · lbf). Diagonal shear cracks in matrix are seen and extensive delamination has occurred. Fig. 6 The compression after impact (CAI) failure sequence. (1) At the beginning of the load cycle the damaged...
Book Chapter

By John E. Moalli
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... failure criteria. Those familiar with design based on load-limit-type analyses may find that, in many occasions with composites, strain limits are a more appropriate selection. For example, in composite pipes carrying aggressive media it may be important for the resin not to crack as the fibers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... for Tensile Properties of Plastics D 695 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics D 790 Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials D 2344 Standard Test Method for Apparent Interlaminar Shear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... through single-fiber fragmentation tests. The fiber-matrix adhesion increases in the order AU-4 > AS-4 > AS-4C. AU-4 has the lowest level of adhesion and fails by a frictional debonding mode; AS- 4 has an intermediate level of adhesion and fails by an interfacial crack growth mode; AS-4C has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... are introduced. For example, two-dimensional woven fabrics seem to have less propensity in developing interlaminar cracks than do cross-ply or unidirectional architectures. Satin weaves are preferred versus plain weaves because more uniform cracking is achieved and large cracks between weave crossover points...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... transition H 2 O/solvent resistance Glass transition, wetMoisture weight gainSolvent weight gain Resin toughness Interlaminar fracture toughness Uncured impregnated system Characterization HPLCInfrared spectroscopyDSC Processibility Resin contentFiber contentFlowGelRDS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Fig. 1 Crack branching indicative of crack growth direction in transverse fractures. ∼0.02× Fig. 2 Flexural failure of a graphite-epoxy wing box. ∼0.03× Fig. 3 Delaminated surface revealing beach marks (arrow) indicative of mixed-mode failure in a graphite-epoxy laminate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... The ability of the SiC matrix to protect the interface coating is often dependent on the thickness of the coating, its chemistry, and actual environmental conditions. Porosity and matrix stress cracking will allow the ingress of oxygen, which will degrade the interface coating. If the porosity left...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... be evaluated as to their applicability to behavior in a structure. This is particularly true for multidirectional fiber-reinforced composites. Other considerations include the influence of matrix cracking, or “first ply failure,” on design. In particular, first ply failure may occur far below ultimate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... will fail soon after the formation of a visible crack. However, complete failure may not occur in a similar specimen tested using strain control until long after a visible crack has formed. The cycles-to-failure may be several times as large as the cycles-to-crack-initiation. This tendency is particularly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... head. (b) Flush head Fig. 10 Interference fit. See text for discussion. Fig. 14 Strain hardening of sleeved fastener in stack-up of mixed modulus materials, resulting in cracking under cyclic loading Fig. 16 Typical installation sequence for Hi-Lok fasteners Fig...