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interlaminar cracking

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of temperature and moisture through the thickness of a laminate. Stresses due to mechanical loads, temperature, and moisture on the laminate are analyzed. The article concludes with information on interlaminar cracking, free-edge delamination, and transverse cracks of laminates. unidirectional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... figure, transverse matrix cracks and longitudinal cracks are visible. In the later stages of Phase II, delamination initiation becomes the dominant damage mechanism. Strong interlaminar stresses develop at the intersection of matrix cracks and longitudinal cracks, creating a favorable situation for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the ductile fracture, interlaminar failure, transgranular cleavage and fracture, tension-overload fracture, longitudinal and transverse cracking, fiber splitting, stress rupture, and low-cycle fatigue of these composites. ductile to brittle transition fractograph metal-matrix composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... laminate. Overall crack growth direction is from left to right. 1000× Fig. 2 Mode I tension interlaminar fractures that propagated at various angles to the direction of fiber reinforcement. (a) Fracture between adjacent 0° and 90° plies. (b) Fracture between 45° and–45° plies. 2000×. Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for other materials, such as metals. There may be little macroscopic difference between interlaminar fracture features formed by fatigue and those formed in overload. Composite materials may lack visual indications of the initiation site. Although microscopic fatigue striations may form, areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... concludes with a discussion on the split-Hopkinson pressure bar test. compression testing fatigue testing fiber-reinforced composites flexure testing interlaminar failure mechanical properties mechanical testing nondestructive techniques shear testing split-hopkinson pressure bar test strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... interlaminar tensile stress, other factors, such as transverse cracking and interlaminar shear stress, appear to affect the onset and growth of delamination ( Ref 10 ). The (0°/90°/±45°) s laminate, which has a compressive interlaminar normal stress, does not show any delamination under static tension, but...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and is presently used with organic-matrix composites. A sample is heated for a predetermined time period at a temperature sufficient to partially pyrolyze the resin matrix. This process diminishes the interlaminar bond strength to the point that the individual plies can be easily separated by simply...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... translaminar fractures are visually apparent, composites, because of their laminated construction, will also exhibit interlaminar fractures that may be hidden from view. As a result, nondestructive evaluation of the component to find these interlaminar fractures often represents a particularly critical step in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... material and structural discontinuities that give rise to interlaminar stresses ( Fig. 1 ). Delaminations occur at stress-free edges due to a mismatch in properties of the individual layers, at ply drops (both internal and external) where thickness must be reduced, and at regions subjected to out-of-plane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0005754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-reinforced plastic ft foot FTIR Fourier transform infrared g gram G shear modulus G ′ storage modulus G ″ loss modulus G Ic interlaminar fracture toughness (mode I, peel; mode II, shear; mode III, scissor shear) gal gallon GFRP glass-fiber-reinforced...
Book Chapter

By John E. Moalli
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., compressive, and interlaminar shear strength can all be negatively affected. Excessive voids can also reduce the environmental resistance of the composite. Because the end-use requirements of composite structures are so different, allowable void contents vary as well. Applications that demand minimal voids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... acid. This first published data that bend or tensile strength has a maximum with respect to increasing interlaminar shear strength has been corroborated by other research, although the authors did not draw the curve to indicate a maximum. The bend strength is initially low, when the interlaminar shear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for other materials, such as metals. There may be little macroscopic difference between interlaminar fracture features formed by fatigue and those formed in overload. Composite materials may lack visual indications of the initiation site. Although microscopic fatigue striations may form, areas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cracking, j and D, fiber bending (especially in the case of aramid fiber or carbon fiber). (a2) A, interlaminar crack propagation; B, fiber cracking; C, fiber matrix debonding; and D, fiber fracturing. (a3) A, fiber fracturing; B, fiber matrix debonding. (b) Ideal composite for high abrasive wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... following in common. Specific criteria from a current military aircraft program have been summarized as follows: Damage tolerance criteria Damage tolerance impact: Interlaminar delamination damage resulting from a low-velocity impact is assumed to represent a worst- case threat for damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... purposes ( Ref 42 ): Reduce and disrupt the formation of matrix cracks that form during shrinkage of the polymer Enhance ceramic yield by forming reaction products during pyrolysis Strengthen and toughen the weak amorphous matrix and increase the interlaminar shear strength of the composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.9781627081757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Although composite properties are often dominated by the reinforcement properties, some properties, such as interlaminar shear and interlaminar tensile, are matrix dominated. In addition, properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity can be strongly affected by the matrix material type. Even the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... oriented in a variety of ways, depending on the performance requirements of the specific application. A unidirectional (0°) alignment of fibers results in the highest level of property translation efficiency, but at the expense of intralaminar and interlaminar strength. A two-dimensional, planar interlaced...