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interlaminar cracking

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of temperature and moisture through the thickness of a laminate. Stresses caused due to mechanical loads, temperature, and moisture on the laminate are analyzed. The article concludes with information on interlaminar cracking, free-edge delamination, and transverse cracks of laminates. unidirectional...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
) A, interlaminar crack propagation; B, fiber cracking; C, fiber matrix debonding; and D, fiber fracturing. (a3) A, fiber fracturing; B, fiber matrix debonding. (b) Ideal composite for high abrasive wear resistance. L , normal load; V , velocity Source: Ref 32 More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the ductile fracture, interlaminar failure, transgranular cleavage and fracture, tension-overload fracture, longitudinal and transverse cracking, fiber splitting, stress rupture, and low-cycle fatigue of these composites. ductile to brittle transition fractograph metal-matrix composites tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... fracture modes, namely, crack opening mode, shearing mode, and tearing mode. It presents an overview of fatigue testing and fatigue damage mechanisms of composite materials and reviews the types of mechanical measurements that can be made during the course of testing to assess fatigue damage. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... . These river marks can sometimes be used to help in determining the crack-growth direction. Fig. 4 Hackles in the resin of a carbon/epoxy (AS4/3501-6) laminate, indicative of mode II shear failure. 480× Fig. 5 Interlaminar mode II shear fractures that propagated at an angle to the direction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... , Evaluation of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated Composites , J. Compos. Technol. Res. , Vol 19 ( No. 3 ), July 1997 , p 174 – 183 13. Paris P.C. and Sih G.C. , “Stress Analysis of Cracks,” STP 381 , Fracture Toughness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in Fig. 3 using a cross-ply laminate that has been subjected to a fatigue loading. In this figure, transverse matrix cracks and longitudinal cracks are visible. In the later stages of Phase II, delamination initiation becomes the dominant damage mechanism. Strong interlaminar stresses develop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., compressive, shear, flexural, or fatigue failure modes, while intra- and interlaminar fractures can exhibit both overload and fatigue in mode I tension, mode II shear, and mixed-mode failure. Additional information regarding features associated with specific loading conditions, as well as crack initiation...
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
arrays for 30 min at 69 MPa (10 ksi) and 480 °C (895 °F). Tensile strength of the metal-matrix composite was in close agreement with rule-of-mixture values. (Compare with Fig. 1256 and 1257 .) Fracture surface reveals interlaminar failure of the aluminum matrix (features of this type are usually More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0005754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0005754 Abbreviations and Symbols a crack length CFRP carbon ber reinforced plastic DSC differential scanning calorimetry A ampere; alkali (glass ber designator) CIP cold isostatic pressing DTA differential thermal analysis A area; ratio of the alternating stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...-free stress level for a predetermined life cycle is expected to vary, depending upon the type of laminate. In addition to interlaminar tensile stress, other factors, such as transverse cracking and interlaminar shear stress, appear to affect the onset and growth of delamination ( Ref 10 ). The (0°/90...
Book Chapter

By John E. Moalli
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-type analyses may find that, in many occasions with composites, strain limits are a more appropriate selection. For example, in composite pipes carrying aggressive media it may be important for the resin not to crack as the fibers will no longer be protected; this will likely occur at a strain level...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the type of structure, how it is loaded, and its location in the assembly. Specific Criteria Specific criteria from a current military aircraft program have been summarized as follows: Damage tolerance criteria Damage tolerance criteria Damage tolerance impact: Interlaminar delamination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... debonds from the matrix to arrest crack propagation by blunting ( Fig. 3c ). Damage tolerance is provided by the redundancy in load-carrying members. Localized impact may fracture a few fibers, but the load carried by the fractured fibers will be transferred through the matrix to the remaining fibers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract Mechanical and environmental loadings cause a variety of failure modes in composites, including matrix cracking, fiber-matrix debonding, delamination between plies, and fiber breakage. This article summarizes visual analysis and nondestructive testing methods for the failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... for Apparent Interlaminar Shear Strength of Parallel Fiber Composites by Short-Beam Method D 3039/D 3039M Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer-Matrix Composites D 3410 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials with Unsupported Gage Section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... can be identified. For example, the fiber may have morphological variations near the fiber surface, which are not present in the bulk of the fiber. The surface area of the fiber can be much greater than its geometrical value, because of pores, pits, or cracks present on the surface. The atomic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... : The panel should have a resin-rich surface to preclude fiber splitting. This can best be done by using an appropriate peel ply. Burlington peel ply 51789, style 52006, has been found to yield excellent results. Apparent Interlaminar Shear Test The apparent interlaminar shear test (previously...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... species collect in isolated voids and exert pressures that exceed the local material strength, larger voids can open and create damaged regions (primarily delaminations). During later stages when a network of connected cracks has developed, this danger is largely over. As a result, careful attention...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... interface coating from the environment. The ability of the SiC matrix to protect the interface coating is often dependent on the thickness of the coating, its chemistry, and actual environmental conditions. Porosity and matrix stress cracking will allow the ingress of oxygen, which will degrade...