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interference-contrast illumination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Electrolytically etched. 250× Fig. 39 Inconel 718 (UNS N07718) heat treated 100 h at 870 °C (1600 °F) to produce needlelike orthorhombic Ni 3 Nb. (a) Bright-field illumination. (b) Differential interference-contrast illumination. Particles in relief in (b) are niobium carbides; particles flush...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... include bright-field illumination, dark-field illumination, polarized-light microscopy, interference and contrast microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The article also provides a discussion of sample preparation materials such as dyes, etchants, and stains for the analysis of composite materials using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., 300, 100, 50, and 10 gf test forces (differential interference contrast illumination, aqueous 60% nitric acid, 1.5 V dc). 250× Fig. 2 Knoop hardness test. (a) Schematic of the rhombohedral-shaped diamond indenter used for the Knoop test and an example of the indentation it produces. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...×. Fig. 3 Zircaloy 4 as-cast ingot. (a) Center section. Attack polished, heat tinted, etchant procedure No. 6, and viewed with differential interference contrast illumination. (b) Midthickness. Attack polished, heat tinted, and viewed with differential interference contrast illumination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... The specimen was brought back to room temperature, cleaned, and viewed with Nomarski differential interference contrast illumination without etching. Fig. 15 Microstructure of high-density polyethylene containing a filler revealed using a polished specimen and Nomarski differential interference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and (b) mechanochemical polish Fig. 3 (a) Bright-field image of SiSiC. 200×. (b) Dark-field image of SiSiC. 200×. (c) Differential interference contrast illumination image of SiSiC. 200× Fig. 1 Gray-level threshold for a porous steatite ceramic sample Fig. 2 Phase analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Fig. 5 Light micrograph showing a very large shrinkage gap between the phenolic resin mount (PM) and a specimen of 6061-T6 aluminum etched with aqueous 0.5% hydrofluoric acid. Note the metal flow at the specimen edge (revealed using Nomarski differential interference contrast illumination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Illumination Methods Light Optical Images versus Scanning Electron Microscopy Images of Microstructure Summary Bright-Field Illumination Polarized Light Dark-Field Illumination Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast Comparison of Imaging Modes Polarized Light versus Bright Field...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... current, successful techniques. Methods for preparation of thin foils for transmission electron microscopy are also described in the literature ( Ref 6 , 10 ), but are not reviewed in this article. Differential interference contrast (DIC) illumination is also effective in revealing structure (see...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... sequentially with specific etchants to reveal certain constituents. Network etching Formation of networks (subgrain boundaries), especially in mild steels after etching in nitric acid Optical etching Develops the microstructure by using special illumination techniques (dark-field, phase contrast...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cotton that will not scratch the polished surface. Etch time varies with etch strength and can only be determined by experience. In general, for high magnification examination, the etch should be shallower, while for low magnification examination a deeper etch yields better image contrast. Some etchants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Polarized light Phase contrast Differential interference contrast (DIC), also known as Nomarski Modulation contrast, also known as Hoffman modulation contrast Epi-illumination Optical staining contrast-enhancement methods fiber-reinforced polymeric composites grinding microscope...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... magnification examination a deeper etch yields better image contrast. Some etchants produce selective results in that only one phase will be attacked or colored. A vast number of etchants have been developed; the more commonly used etchants will be listed in this article (see also ASTM E 407). Macroetching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... light microscopy methods use several contrast-enhancement methods that are not commonly used in metallurgical reflective microscopy. These methods include bright field; polarized light; phase contrast; differential interference contrast (DIC), also known as Nomarski; modulation contrast, also known...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... different levels of stress or other excitation. The frame of reference for this differential measurement is usually, but not always, the unstressed or natural state of the test object. This differential type of measurement contrasts with absolute types, which are made without a frame of reference...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the liquid-surface system suitable for rapid inspection of large amounts of material on a continuous basis. In contrast, inspection with the scanning system is relatively slow. Photographic or videotape records for later study may be made with either system. The outstanding feature of the scanning system...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... A larger light guide bundle is used, which provides higher illumination and a larger image with a higher degree of contrast. Hybrid borescopes are up to 990 mm (39 in.) long, and 5.5 to 12 mm (0.216 to 0.47 in.) in diameter. All hybrid borescopes have adjustable focusing of the objective lens and a 370...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... bundle is used, which provides higher illumination and a larger image with a higher degree of contrast. Hybrid borescopes are up to 990 mm (39 in.) long, and 5.5 to 12 mm (0.216 to 0.47 in.) in diameter. All hybrid borescopes have adjustable focusing of the objective lens and a 370° rotation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and Specimen Preparation Grinding and Polishing Etching Illumination Techniques Examples Sampling Sectioning Mounting Grinding Polishing Preparation Examples Common Etchants Selective Color Etching Dark-Field Illumination and Differential Interference Contrast...