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interference-contrast illumination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... illumination (not common today), and differential interference contrast, generally by the Nomarski technique. Bright-field illumination is usually the starting point for examination of microstructures, which should start before etching to detect nonmetallic inclusions, nitrides, carbides, and possibly voids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 120 s) are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Contrast and brightness are modulated by the operator of the scanning electron microscope. A good micrograph exhibits a range of gray levels; as the number of gray levels increases, so does the information content of the micrograph. The operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... that requires a three-dimensional appearance. It uses low-angle illumination, so higher magnifications are limited. Polarized light is especially useful for analyzing optically anisotropic metals, such as beryllium, α-titanium, and zirconium. Differential interference contrast (DIC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... specimen edge (revealed using Nomarski differential interference contrast illumination) and the water stains (arrows on the aluminum specimen). Fig. 6 Light micrograph showing stain (arrows pointing up) from the etchant (Vilella’s reagent) that seeped from the shrinkage gap (wide arrows pointing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... lenses combined with convex lenses to relay the image. A larger light guide bundle is used, which provides higher illumination and a larger image with a higher degree of contrast. Hybrid borescopes are up to 990 mm (39 in.) long, and 5.5 to 12 mm (0.216 to 0.47 in.) in diameter. All hybrid borescopes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cotton that will not scratch the polished surface. Etch time varies with etch strength and can only be determined by experience. In general, for high magnification examination, the etch should be shallower, while for low magnification examination a deeper etch yields better image contrast. Some etchants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... acuity and contrast sensitivity. The Illuminating Engineering Society provides recommendations for lighting conditions, but the applicable code and standard according to the task usually addresses these values. Illumination should be not less than 350 lux and not more than 1000 lux and is measured...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... reconstruction. The real-time feature makes the liquid-surface system suitable for rapid inspection of large amounts of material on a continuous basis. In contrast, inspection with the scanning system is relatively slow. Photographic or videotape records for later study may be made with either system. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... provided by the scanning system requires reconstruction. The real-time feature makes the liquid-surface system suitable for the rapid inspection of large amounts of material on a continuous basis. In contrast, inspection with the scanning system is relatively slow. The prominent feature of the scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... micrometers; the halide grains transform to silver when electrons interact with them. The transformation to silver creates contrast in the film. The film is very sensitive to electrons and has a high detector quantum efficiency (DQE), which is the ratio of input/output signal-to-noise ratios, and indicates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... objective lenses and eyepieces ( Fig. 1 , 2 ). The minimum feature resolution is approximately 0.2 μm. However, smaller features—as small as approximately 0.05 μm—can be detected by image contrast enhancement with polarized light, interference contrast, or dark-field illuminations. Fig. 1 Light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... large cross section with thickness ranging from hundreds of micrometers to several millimeters. Different imperfections are identified through interpretation of contrast using well-established kinematical and dynamical theories of x-ray diffraction. The capability of in situ characterization during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... its very high-magnification mode and is employed as a counterpart to conventional optical and electron microscopy, that is, to see fine detail at and near surfaces. The scanning acoustic microscope, like the other acoustic microscopy methods, produces image contrast, which is a function of the elastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... spectra to only that of the element of interest and the associated fill gas (i.e., neon or argon). Consequently, subsequent wavelength-isolation components (monochromator or interference filter) were only required to isolate the selected resonance transition wavelength. This is contrasted with high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., some adhesives, such as AF-55 and FM-400, are x-ray opaque, which yields a much higher contrast among voids, porosity, and solid adhesive ( Fig. 16 ). Disbonds (separation between adhesive and adherend) are best detected by ultrasonic techniques. Fig. 16 Positive print from neutron radiograph...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and ion-scattering spectroscopy can be used to show what is on or within the first few atomic layers of the surface. These techniques yield specific chemical bonding information and identify the elements present and, in contrast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... available. Sometimes, a white coating is applied to the surface prior to conducting visible-particle tests (dry or wet) to enhance contrast and improve detection. Benefits and limitations of both types of particles/indications are similar to those for visible and fluorescent dye penetrants. The method can...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ferrites (Ni x Fe 2 O 4 ), and some nickel alloys. Important particle characteristics include magnetic properties, size, shape, density, mobility, and degree of visibility and contrast. A mercury-vapor lamp is a convenient source of ultraviolet light, emitting a light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.9781627081627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... rewarded with improved results and ease of correct interpretation. Errors in interpretation are made when specimens are not properly prepared. As-polished samples should be examined first with bright-field illumination and then with dark-filled illumination, differential interference contrast (DIC) or...