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intercritical annealing

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Image
Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 8 Microstructure of 0.06C-1.5Mn steel intercritically annealed 1 h at 740 °C (1360 °F) and then slow cooled. Reprinted from Ref 17 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Steels may be annealed to facilitate cold working or machining, to improve mechanical or electrical properties, or to promote dimensional stability. This article, using iron-carbon phase diagram, describes the types of annealing processes, namely, subcritical annealing, intercritical...
Book Chapter

By G.R. Speich
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... that continuous annealing in the intercritical temperature range produced steels with a ferrite-martensite microstructure (similar to that shown in Fig. 1 ) and a ductility superior to that of normal precipitation-hardened or solid solution hardened HSLA sheet steels ( Ref 3 ). Some of these results are shown...
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 73 Recrystallization nucleus (arrow) in cold-worked ferrite formed during intercritical annealing. Thin foil TEM specimen More
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 76 Spheroidized cementite particles pinning a recrystallization front during intercritical annealing of a low-carbon steel. Note the recovered dislocation substructure to the left of the front. Thin foil TEM specimen More
Image
Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 8 Transmission electron micrograph of martensite substructure and high dislocation density in ferrite in a 0.04C-1.5Mn steel intercritically annealed at 726 °C (1340 °F) and rapidly cooled. Source: Ref 9 More
Image
Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 9 Transmission electron micrograph of a retained austenite particle in a 0.072C-1.3Mn-0.08Cb-0.08V steel intercritically annealed 5 min at 900 °C (1650 °F) and hot-oil quenched. Source: Ref 10 More
Image
Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 4 Formation of austenite in 0.06C-1.5Mn steel from preexisting pearlite after short-time annealing in the intercritical temperature range (30 s at 740 °C, or 1365 °F). M, Martensite (austenite at intercritical temperature); P, pearlite (dissolution only partly complete). Source: Ref 7 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... For example, intercritical annealing (heating between the lower and upper critical temperatures for a particular steel, that is, between the A 1 and A 3 temperatures indicated in Fig. 1 ) of hypoeutectoid steels in the ferrite-plus-austenite two-phase field is used to generate intercritical ferrite in high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
..., which formed when the specimen was quenched from a temperature between A cm and A 1 . The cementite and its interfaces are preferred sites for fracture initiation and propagation, and as a result, proeutectoid cementite networks make hypereutectoid steels extremely brittle. Intercritical annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... and improves fracture resistance. Also less commonly applied is induction normalizing, subcritical, and intercritical annealing, which restores softness and ductility—important properties for forming of steels, aluminum and copper alloys, and other materials. Melting Induction processes are frequently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... for annealing ductile iron castings for different alloy contents and for castings with and without eutectic carbides. The article discusses the induction surface hardening and remelt hardening of ductile iron. It concludes with information on the effect of heat treatment on fatigue strength of ductile iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... treatments of ductile irons, namely, stress relieving, austenitizing, annealing, normalizing, quenching, martempering, austempering, and surface hardening. The article elucidates the effects of these heat treatments on the mechanical properties of the ductile irons. alloying annealing austempering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.9781627081610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... with a featureless surface structure, helping to distinguish it from ferrite and martensite. This steel was intercritically annealed before quenching, so a considerable ferrite fraction is present along with the Q&P constituent that consists of a mixture of martensite laths and retained austenite. Ideally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005949
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., and austenitizing for hardening Heat treatment also includes temperature ranges for subcritical and intercritical annealing. Subcritical heat treatment (below the lower critical temperature, A 1 ) includes stress-relief and recrystallization annealing ( Fig. 2 ). Stress-relief temperatures are sufficiently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0005547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Cast Iron Research EBW electron beam welding transformation Association EDS energy-dispersive spectroscopy temperatures in steel EDXA energy-dispersive x-ray analysis bet body~centered tetragonal ACD annealed cold drawn ELI extralow interstitial ACI Alloy Casting Institute BID Brinell indentation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... is commonly used as a rule of thumb. Spheroidize annealing heat treatment of blanks is commonly used to increase the upset strain limit beyond 1.6. The cold heading process limits are sensitive to the type of material, material condition, lubrication, equipment, and shape of the upset. Therefore...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... for integrated steel mill operations where ore from the ground is converted into steel. The various refining steps that occur in steelmaking are reviewed. The article also describes solid processing of steel, with emphasis on hot and cold rolling, thermomechanical processing, and annealing of flat steel products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... rolling operations. A, conventional hot rolling; B, conventional controlled rolling; C, intensified (intercritical) controlled rolling; D, recrystallization controlled rolling. T , temperature; T AC 3 , temperature at which transformation of ferrite to austenite is completed on heating; T Ar 1...