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interatomic bonds

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005574
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses three distinct mechanisms of bonding for solid-state (forge) welding processes, namely, contaminant displacement/interatomic bonding, dissociation of retained oxides, and decomposition of the interfacial structure. It explains the processes that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... and the Gibbs free energy of a binary solution. It schematically illustrates the structure of a binary solid solution with interatomic bonds and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from the free-energy curves at a given temperature. The article concludes with information...
Image
Published: 01 December 2009
is the interface shear modulus. With these data, it is possible to calculate the localization parameter. The horizontal arrows at the interface represent an external stress applied to the interface. The small arrows linking atoms across the interface symbolize the stretched interatomic bonds across the interface More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., starting from such data as cohesion energy, vaporization energy (showing the energy needed to break interatomic bonds in a material composed of one type of atoms), and free energy to form the given chemical compound. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the atmosphere around the material may influence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Fourier transform of the intensity data yields the radial distribution function (RDF). The RDF gives the distribution of interatomic distances present in the sample and also gives information concerning the frequency with which particular distances occur. Figure 1 illustrates the RDF for silica glass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... changes in the interatomic spacing and the stretching of interatomic bonds. The magnitude of modulus is a measure of the resistance to separation of adjacent atoms. Therefore, the modulus is found to be proportional to the slope of the interatomic force/distance curve at equilibrium distance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... stiffness, and the density of bonds per unit area. An interatomic bond is like a spring: it has a spring constant, S (units: N/m). Young's modulus, E , is roughly (Eq 1) E = S r o where r o is the “atom size” ( r o 3 is the mean atomic or ionic volume). The wide range...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...-crystal x-ray diffraction has as its primary goal the determination of crystal structure, the arrangement of atoms within the unit cell. If the atoms are grouped into molecules, the molecular structure is an added benefit. Once the atoms are located, interatomic bond distances and angles can be calculated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... one another comes into balance to result in a zero net force and, not incidentally, a minimum potential energy state. Once at this equilibrium interatomic spacing, the atoms bond with an energy given by the depth of the well in the net potential energy curve, that is, the binding energy or bond energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in making bricks. Ceramics are characterized by having good compressive strength and low tensile strength. The ionic nature of the interatomic bonds produces high rigidity (stiffness) and little ductility (elasticity). Ceramics are strong; once a crack starts, it grows rapidly, leading to immediate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... force between a solid surface and a second phase in either liquid or solid form. In this context, adhesion is a manifestation of the innate interatomic and intermolecular bonds that occur between the surfaces of two materials. Other meanings of adhesion also arise in different disciplines related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the destruction of the surface (that is, oxide) layers of the metallic materials in the weld area. This exposes areas of clean metal surface on the two components to be welded, which must be brought into contact with each other to generate the interatomic forces needed to form a weld. Examinations of butt-welded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., the separation process involves breaking interatomic bonds, the number (and possibly strength) of which depends on crystallographic orientation, so that surface energy varies from one crystal face to another ( Ref 5 ). Surface Energy and Surface Forces In conducting the thought experiment described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses three typical repair types for composite structures: temporary repairs, adhesively bonded repairs, and bolted repairs. It contains a table that lists general design requirements and considerations for the repair of composite structures. The article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by a single trip through a brazing furnace or a dip pot. Metal as thin as 0.01 mm (0.0004 in.) and as thick as 150 mm (6 in.) can be brazed. Brazed joint strength is high. The nature of the interatomic (metallic) bond is such that even a simple joint, when properly designed and made, will have strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews quantifying adhesion, bonding, and interfacial characterization and strength in a solid-state welding process. It discusses metal-metal configurations and provides information on experimental work carried out in measuring the mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
.... 1a and 1b ). In many cases, it is necessary to coat certain areas off-normal due to the complex shape of the parts. Any deviation from normal can have a negative impact on coating properties. For example, bond strength, porosity, and coating cohesion will be compromised. The planning of a coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... that a primary covalent bond does; therefore, the energy required to break secondary bonds is less than the 300 to 420 kJ/mol ( Ref 21 ) strength of covalent bonds. The interatomic distance of covalent bonds is quite short, generally between 1 and 2 Å ( Ref 21 ). When primary, or covalent, bonds join adjacent...
Book Chapter

By K. Sampath
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002488
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and cast alloys can be turned into integral components by a single trip through a brazing furnace or a dip pot. Metal as thin as 0.01 mm (0.0004 in.) and as thick as 150 mm (6 in.) can be brazed. Brazed joint strength is high. The nature of the interatomic (metallic) bond is such that even a simple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... preparation target efficiency thermal spray coating undercutting SEVERAL KEY PROCESSING STEPS are required to produce optimized thermal spray coatings. For example, to ensure adequate bonding of a coating, it is critical that the substrate be properly prepared. The substrate surface must be clean...