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instantaneous failure rate

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...Abstract Abstract Reliability is a measure of the capacity of equipment or systems to operate without failure in the service environment. This article focuses on reliability in design and presents equations governing the instantaneous failure rate, general reliability function, mean time...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... 10 ). When a load is first applied, the dashpot resists immediate deformation. The force causes the dashpot to elongate at an instantaneous velocity of σ 0 /η e . As time continues, the rate of elongation of the dashpot decreases, with the load being increasingly borne by the spring. Eventually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...-line under small-scale conditions, another parameter, C t , has been proposed and shown to characterize creep-crack growth rates under a wide range of creep conditions ( Ref 18 , 38 ). The C t parameter is defined as the instantaneous rate at which stress-power is dissipated and can be measured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article contains nine tables that present useful formulas for deformation analysis and workability testing. The tables present formulas for effective stress, strain, and strain rate in arbitrary coordinates, principal, compression and tension testing of isotropic material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract This article presents formulas for calculating the following: effective stress, strain, and strain rate (isotropic material) in arbitrary coordinates and in principal coordinates; compression testing, tension testing, and torsion testing of isotropic material; and Barlat's...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 2012 • “ Rolling Bearings—Dynamic Load Ratings and Rating Life ,” ISO 281:2007, International Organization for Standardization , Geneva, Switzerland , reaffirmed 2016 • Sachs N.W. , Failure Analysis Made Simple: Bearings and Gears , Reliabilityweb.com , Fort Myers, FL , 2015...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... the deformation response of the metal: strain rate, temperature, nature of loading, stress-corrosion cracking, and presence of notches. mechanical properties ferrous metals nonferrous metals forces deformation fracture mechanisms mechanical testing microstructure strain rate stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... is homogeneous, ε = ε ), and h 0 and h are the initial and instantaneous height of the specimen, respectively. Δ h = h 0 − h is the distance thecrosshead has traveled since the compression test commenced. For a constant strain-rate test, the instantaneous strain is simply the product of strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... and Low-Cycle Fatigue and Life Predictions , STP 770, 1982. Historical Development The failure of a metal because of repeated loads was first documented by Albert (circa 1838) ( Ref 1 ). Since that time, considerable attention has been paid to the deformation behavior of metals under a variety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of possible plastic deformation before fracture (ductility). Therefore, a complete description of the workability of a material is specified by its flow stress dependence on processing variables (for example, strain, strain rate, preheat temperature, and die temperature), its failure behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of applying the force Determination of strength properties other than the maximum force required to fracture the test item Ductility properties to be determined Speed of force application or speed of elongation (e.g., control of stress rate or strain rate) Test temperature The main focus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... and constant strain-rate tensile tests are common. In uniaxial tensile tests, strain-dependent axial force and elongation are obtained at a constant temperature and microstructure. Instantaneous strain rates are obtained by dividing the cross-head velocity by the instantaneous gage length of the tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of deformation the material can tolerate without failure. On the other hand, a plot of the flow stress versus temperature, along with work-piece size and strain rate, indicates the force levels required of the hot-working equipment. Last, a curve of cavity volume fraction versus strain, strain rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., instantaneous failure of a stressed metal when a particular liquid metal is applied. Grain-boundary penetration is not necessarily observed The last three types of interactions are the prime forms of LME. Most studies of LME discuss the last type, the instantaneous form of embrittlement, which is the most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... geometry and loading. Understanding the true effects of time, temperature, and rate of loading on material performance can make the difference between a successful application and catastrophic failure. Examples of reliable material performance indicators and common practices to avoid are presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of isotropic materials are included. The article also lists the formulas for effective stress, strain, and strain rate (isotropic material) in arbitrary and principal coordinates; dimensionless groups in fluid mechanics; and anisotropic sheet materials at various loading conditions. bending casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... elongates or cross-sectional area shrinks. To run tension tests at a constant true strain rate requires monitoring the instantaneous cross section of the deforming region with closed-loop control feedback to increase the crosshead velocity as the area decreases ( Ref 13 ). The strain-rate dependence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... shutdown for installation and retrieval of specimens tend to be relatively slow in generating information. On the other hand, equipment that measures instantaneous corrosion rates can provide rapid results, but often with a reduction in accuracy. A most important consideration is safety. In an operating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and notes that there are at least four distinct forms of LMIE ( Ref 2 ): Type 1: Instantaneous fracture of a metal under an applied or residual tensile stress when in contact with certain liquid metals. This is the most common type of LMIE. Type 2: Delayed failure of a metal when in contact...