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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract When a heat of steel is melted and refined, it is necessary to solidify it into useful forms for further processing or final use. Ingot casting remains the preferred method for certain specialty, tool, forging, and remelted steels. This article discusses the methods, equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... regions indicate intermediate fractions in accordance with the legend scale. Original scale and distribution of volume fraction plotted as a color graphic from finite element modeling program Fig. 5 Longitudinal section of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) superalloy ingot melted under typical...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract Ingot casting is the vital conduit between molten metal provided by primary production and recycling and the manufacture of aluminum and aluminum alloy products. A number of ingot casting processes have been developed to ensure the soundness, integrity, and homogeneity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Fig. 1 Ingot for foundry remelting. (a) Automatic ingot stacker at casthouse. (b) Stack of aluminum ingot at die casting foundry. Courtesy of Light Metal Age Fig. 3 Rolling ingot from direct chill casters with mold frame in background. Courtesy of Loma Machine Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...Abstract Abstract The residual porosity in sintered refractory metal ingots is usually eliminated by different densification processes, such as thermomechanical processes. This article focuses on thermomechanical processing of tungsten, molybdenum, and tantalum. It provides an overview...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Fig. 3 Estimated minimum tensile properties of selected hot-rolled carbon steel bars Abstract Abstract Hot-rolled steel bars and other hot-rolled steel shapes are produced from ingots, blooms, or billets converted from ingots or from strand cast blooms or billets and comprise a variety...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Titanium metal passes through three major steps during processing from ore to finished product: reduction of titanium ore to sponge (porous form), melting of sponge and scrap to form ingot, and remelting and casting into finished shape. This article describes primary...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steel Abstract Abstract Hot-rolled steel bars and other hot rolled steel shapes are produced from ingots, blooms, or billets converted from ingots, or from strand cast blooms and billets, and comprise a variety of sizes and cross sections. This article provides a brief discussion on mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of ingot solidification and the various defects of remelted ingot such as tree ring patterns, freckles, and white spots. The article explains several variations of ESR such as pressure electroslag remelting, remelting under reduced pressure, and electroslag rapid remelting. It also examines the features...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract The vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process is widely used to improve the cleanliness and refine the structure of standard air melted or vacuum induction melted (VIM) ingots. It is also used in the triplex production of superalloys. This article illustrates the VAR process...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Tundish and mold arrangement for horizontal caster. Source: Ref 27 Abstract Abstract The purpose of continuous casting is to bypass conventional ingot casting and to cast to a form that is directly rollable on finishing mills. The use of this process has resulted in improvement in yield...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... to predict the pool shape and thermal history of an ingot using two-dimensional axisymmetric models for VAR and ESR. Analysis of segregation of alloying elements during solidification that gives rise to macrolevel compositional nonuniformity in titanium alloy ingots is also described. The article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... alloy designations. It also tabulates the grade designations and compositions of wrought and cast aluminum and aluminum alloys. The article provides information on cross-referencing of aluminum wrought and ingot/cast products according to composition, per the Aluminum Association, Unified Numbering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Fig. 13 for corresponding microstructures before aging. Standard forging temperatures for manufacturing titanium billet stock Table 10 Standard forging temperatures for manufacturing titanium billet stock Alloy Forging temperatures β transus Ingot breakdown Intermediate Finish...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the systems for designating the aluminum and aluminum alloys that incorporate the product forms (wrought, casting or foundry ingots) and its respective temper for strain-hardened alloys, heat-treatable alloys and annealed alloys. All these systems...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and designations and composition limits for aluminum alloys in the form of castings and ingot. It provides helpful information on the Unified Numbering System (UNS) numbers and its corresponding AA numbers for aluminum and aluminum alloys, and the international alloy designations cross-referenced to its equivalent...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The compositions of the ferritic, martensitic, austenitic, and duplex alloys are superimposed on this diagram. Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of a blast furnace showing the gas reactions as a function of temperature Fig. 22 Surface defects on semifinished products made by primary rolling of ingots...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... simulations of the development of microstructure, texture, and resulting properties during the thermomechanical processing of Al-Mn-Mg alloys, starting from the as-cast ingot to final-gage sheet. It provides an introduction of the thermomechanical production of aluminum sheet and, in particular, highlights...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Fig. 6 Potential processing routes for products cast from vacuum induction melting (VIM) ingots or electrodes. VAR, vacuum are remelting; ESR, electroslag remelting; EB, electron beam; HIP, hot isostatic pressing. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 4 Typical vacuum induction melting protocol for nickel...