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ingot-melting

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) alloy metal-matrix composites (MMCs) represent an advanced aluminum materials concept whereby ceramic particles, or whiskers, are added to aluminum-base alloys through the use of either ingot-melting or casting and/or powder-metallurgy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Titanium metal passes through three major steps during processing from ore to finished product: reduction of titanium ore to sponge (porous form), melting of sponge and scrap to form ingot, and remelting and casting into finished shape. This article describes primary...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract The vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process is widely used to improve the cleanliness and refine the structure of standard air melted or vacuum induction melted (VIM) ingots. It is also used in the triplex production of superalloys. This article illustrates the VAR process...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract When a heat of steel is melted and refined, it is necessary to solidify it into useful forms for further processing or final use. Ingot casting remains the preferred method for certain specialty, tool, forging, and remelted steels. This article discusses the methods, equipment...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract Vacuum induction melting (VIM) is often done as a primary melting operation followed by secondary melting (remelting) operations. This article presents the process description of VIM and illustrates potential processing routes for products, which are cast from VIM ingots...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Long thermal cycles at temperatures near the melting point of the alloy are used to reduce ingot segregation by way of diffusion. Times and temperatures are developed to minimize residual segregation to a point that is acceptable in the final billet. The primary goals of homogenization are to reduce...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... with the metal being melted. Electroslag remelting is similar to vacuum arc remelting (VAR), except that ESR is carried out at normal atmospheric pressure and has a greater melting rate than VAR. Fig. 1 Schematic of an ESR furnace with multiple electrodes for large ingot production When the tip...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... electron beam melting refining drip melting cold hearth melting ELECTRON BEAM MELTING AND CASTING TECHNOLOGY is accepted worldwide for the production of niobium and tantalum ingots weighing up to 2500 kg (5500 lb) in furnaces with electron beams of 200 to 1500 kW. Other applications in Germany...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... and white spots, can occur. The metallurgical structure of the remelted ingot depends on the temperature gradient and the thermal history of the solidifying metal. The behavior of an inclusion that enters the melt pool is governed by its density, which controls the buoyancy force, and its size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the ingot to a more usable size and shape. Most large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings are produced from billets, bar stock, or a preform, all of which have received some previous mechanical working. The major problems associated with melting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-pressure RF discharges, and corona discharges. Cold plasmas are not suitable for melting processes. Thermal plasmas are suitable for melting in the production of ingots, slabs, castings, or powders. Plasma Torches Breakdown (that is, the creation of ionic charge carriers) establishes a conducting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in the sow or ingot, thus making it safer to charge. The stored thermal energy (Btus) provides further energy savings in maintaining the melt. Melt loss and themal efficiency of electric and gas reverberatory furnaces Table 1 Melt loss and themal efficiency of electric and gas reverberatory furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and sheet metalworking. The major problems associated with melting and casting practice are the development of porosity and a condition known as scabs. Porosity is developed in cast ingots when they solidify and is of two types: pipe and blow holes. Factors that work against obtaining a perfect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... based on physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques such as electron-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering. Liquid-phase techniques range from conventional ingot metallurgy/ingot casting (e.g., consumable and nonconsumable arc melting) to spray forming and the production of prealloyed powders from...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and characteristics of various steel manufacturing processes, such as ingot casting, continuous casting, and hot rolling. It provides an outline of specialized processing routes of producing ultralow plain carbon steels, interstitial-free steels, high strength low-alloy steels, ultrahigh strength steels, stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... 7 ). However, in normal conditions, some arms of the floating dendrites can be detached by the convective motion of the melt, thus determining the formation of an equiaxed structure in the middle of the ingot ( Fig. 8 ). Fig. 7 Cross section through an alloy 1100 ingot cast by the Properzi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and ceramic mold due to low growth rates can result in contamination of the melt by ceramic inclusions ( Ref 65 ). A typical microstructure of the Ti-Al-Nb alloys cast in ceramic molds coated with yttria refined with boron is presented in Fig. 26 . Microstructures of Ti-Al-W-Si DS ingots cast in alumina...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ) is Example Simulation of Macrosegregation The example is a simulation of macrosegregation in a vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot of Ti-6Al-4V. Convection in the melt pool is driven by both buoyancy and Lorentz forces. The latter are particularly important in titanium ingot processing. An “in-house...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
.... The most serious safety concerns are related to the DC process and its variations. There are a number of ways molten aluminum may become exposed to the cooling water. Bleedouts occur when the ingot shell melts below the bottom of the mold. This could result from improper mold cooling, excessive metal...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... shrinkage voids. These and other defects that permit water contamination and retention represent significant safety risks in furnace charging and melting. Ingots up to 22 kg (50 lb) are often notched so that pieces can be broken to facilitate charging and more accurately top off crucible furnace charges...