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ingot pipe

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... or no sensitivity to discontinuities that do not show on the surface, and they are likely to detect laminar discontinuities resulting from ingot piping. Although surface laps are amenable to magnetic crack detection, it is difficult to apply the inspection method to internal surface discontinuities. For resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... products are so designated because they have been subjected to plastic deformation by hot-working and/or cold-working processes (such as rolling, extruding, and drawing), to transform cast aluminum ingot into the desired final shape. Typical examples of wrought products include rolled plate, sheet and foil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... illustrates the increase of U.S. titanium ingot production since 1951. Fig. 1 Growth of U.S. titanium ingot production, 1951 to 1989. Introduction and growth indicate phases of titanium product life cycle. Source: Ref 6 Aerospace applications—including use in both structural (airframe...
Book Chapter

By Samuel M. Purdy
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... by differences in the severity of the acid attack on the affected areas. Segregations at the center may be attacked so deeply that they appear as a pipe or may be grouped in some fairly regular form about the center, depending on the shape of the ingot and the mechanical work done on it. ASTM International plate...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Wrought alloy products and tempers Table 1 Wrought alloy products and tempers Alloy Sheet Plate Tube Pipe Structural profiles (shapes) (a) Extruded wire, rod, bar, and profiles (shapes) Rolled or cold-finished Rivets Forgings and forging stock Foil Fin stock Drawn...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and characteristics of various steel manufacturing processes, such as ingot casting, continuous casting, and hot rolling. It provides an outline of specialized processing routes of producing ultralow plain carbon steels, interstitial-free steels, high strength low-alloy steels, ultrahigh strength steels, stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and, if not completely cropped before subsequent rolling, becomes elongated and will be found in the center of the final product, as shown in ingot B in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Longitudinal sections of two types of ingots showing typical pipe and porosity. When the ingots are rolled into bars, these flaws become...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Fig. 6 Macrostructure of a continuous-cast copper ingot. (a) Spider cracks revealed using dye-penetrant inspection. Transverse section at top; longitudinal section at bottom. (b) Same ingot, etched using Waterbury's reagent. Cracks are not revealed. Both approximately 0.5× Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... production of aluminum and classification system for cast and wrought aluminum alloys. It talks about various manufactured forms of aluminum and its alloys, which are classified into standardized products such as sheet, plate, foil, rod, bar, wire, tube, pipe, and structural forms, and engineered products...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ball screws; 5, three bus tubes; 6, mold assembly; 7, ingot; 8, ingot withdrawal table; 9, three bus tubes; 10, three ball screws; 11, three sliding contacts; 12, base plate; 13, furnace head drive; 14, electrode; 15, three sliding contacts; 16, XY adjustment Fig. 9 Schematic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Carbon Alloy Stainless Open heart Basic oxygen process Electric Ingots Continuous castings Steel castings 1988 86,823 10,902 2199 99,924 86.9 10.9 2.2 5.1 58.0 36.9 38,615 61,232 77 1987 77,976 9,147 2028 89,151 87.5 10.2 2.3 3.0 58.9 38.1 35,802 53,284 65...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... and manufacturing. Source: Ref 4 Although melt loss had become the major cost factor in ingot production, it was the soaring cost of energy during the 1973 energy crisis that triggered the search for more-efficient remelt processes. This effort also sought to develop process that were less...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ingot, and remelting and casting into finished shape. This article describes primary fabrication, including all operations that convert ingot into general mill products, such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, strip, tube, and wire. The section on secondary fabrication describes processes such as die forging...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of end defects, such as shrinkage, porosity, and pipe. Ingots are extensively used as forging stock in the open-die forging of large components, such as the turbine rotor described in Example 4 . Whenever ingots are used, it is desirable (and often mandatory) to adopt a forging...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stems, propellers, marine  High tensile … … Bushings, cams 70/30 brass Lake C26000 Rifle shells Free cutting brass        Rod solids Noble … …  Turnings Night … … Yellow brass pipe Melon … … Railroad car journals Fence … … No. 1 copper Barley, Berry, Candy...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nonmagnetic materials. (c) Heavy-metal flotation. (d) Melting furnaces further sort out recyclable metals. Source: Ref 2 Guillotine Shears Guillotine shears slice heavy pieces of steel such as girders, I-beams, ship plate, pipe, silos, and railroad-car sides. Hydraulic guillotine shears vary...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and storage tanks 6063 Used in pipe railing, furniture, architectural extrusions, appliance parts and trim, automotive parts, building products, electrical and electronic parts, highway signs, hospital and medical equipment, kitchen equipment, marine applications, machine parts, pipe, railroad cars...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... and hafnium are consolidated by electric arc melting in a vacuum or under an inert gas atmosphere using the consumable electrode, cold mold technique. Hot forging of zirconium ingots is performed starting at 1050 °C (1920 °F), with reheating if the temperature falls below 550 °C (1022 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., pewter, bearing alloys, alloys for organ pipes, and fusible alloys. It goes on to discuss the other alloys containing tin including battery grid alloys, type metals, copper alloys, dental alloys, cast irons, titanium alloys, and zirconium alloys. Finally, it presents a short note on the applications...