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indirect visual examination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the basic principles of visual inspection in terms of direct visual examination and indirect visual examination as well as advantages and limitations of visual inspection. It reviews the factors affecting the effectiveness of VI as a nondestructive testing (NDT): lighting conditions of observation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... examinations, direct examination, and post assessment. The ECDA tool selection matrix used to determine the tool choices is also presented. external corrosion direct assessment preassessment indirect examination direct examination post assessment underground pipelines EXTERNAL CORROSION DIRECT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0009001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... surface of a die. This can be assessed by visual inspection of the die surfaces and identification of regions of longer sliding distance in comparison to the rest of the die. It may also be necessary to examine regions of higher forming severity, such as at draw corners, punch and die radii, and where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of IdraPrince Inc. Aluminum Indirect Semisolid Metalworking Component Microstructures When examining microstructures, the feedstock should be kept in mind; continuously cast bar stock and grain-refined extrusion billets will produce very different microstructures in the final component ( Ref 12...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... integrity management. Pipeline Failure Analysis Investigation Procedures Pipeline failure analysis investigations typically follow a general process wherein a visual examination is followed by more detailed nondestructive examination and, finally, by destructive analysis and characterization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology, and the common methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... with the likely areas of damage or degradation and a number of other aspects of inspection. nondestructive evaluation flaw detection probability of detection inspection NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE), alternately known as nondestructive examination (NDE), commonly used within the nuclear industry...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article outlines the basic steps to be followed and the range of techniques available for failure analysis, namely, background data assembling, visual examination, microfractography, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0007023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... about the quality of parts. In-process monitoring can view poor-quality parts in process, eliminating scrap and the need for costly postproduction inspection. In-process monitoring is an indirect inspection method that typically relies on visual and/or thermal methods. It can be improved...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the lay-up. Prepreg materials, especially when examined only casually, look remarkably alike, and unless strict adherence to material traceability is maintained, mix-ups will occur. Prepregs of 210, 280, or 340 GPa (30, 40, or 50 × 10 6 psi) modulus fiber cannot be visually distinguished. Likewise, weave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., electroslag welds are inspected with the same nondestructive examination methods as other heavy-section welds. With the exception of procedure qualification, all testing is nondestructive because of the sizes used. Techniques such as radiography and ultrasonic inspection are most often used, while visual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... are destructive tests intended to evaluate weld integrity as well. Visual examination and ultrasonic examination are nondestructive methods to evaluate weld integrity. This section is a brief review of test methods as they pertain to the RSW method. A more detailed description of weld integrity criteria...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of pipelines. It includes nonintrusive, aboveground examinations with pipeline physical examinations (direct assessment) at sites identified by assessment of the indirect examinations. Close interval survey techniques involve a series of structure-to-electrolyte potential measurements on a buried...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...) and provides information on such things as the stress state at the time of failure and the sequence of crack development. When examining the origin, both fracture surfaces should be looked at, because the key visual clue, such as an inclusion, may be on only one of the surfaces. Also, postfracture damage often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of the structure. Despite recent efforts, coupling between these scales largely remains to be done. Several modeling approaches of solidification structures are presented in the article “Modeling of Dendritic Grain Solidification” in this Volume. One of them is the indirect modeling approach of grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., for typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... compressed air, electric power, or electric generators). Remembering Forgotten Costs Leaving items out of an estimate obviously is problematic and could potentially ruin an otherwise successful project. The estimate needs to provide for all direct and indirect costs. The examination of the scope...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the visual or macroscopic examination of damaged materials and interpretation of damage and fracture features. Analytical tools available for evaluations of corrosion and wear damage features include energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Hot extrusion is a process in which wrought parts are formed by forcing a heated billet through a shaped die opening. This article discusses nonlubricated and lubricated hot extrusion. The two nonlubricated hot extrusion methods are forward or direct extrusion and backward or indirect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... standards and not the visual guides that are the governing document. Examination is always performed using the unaided eye or corrected vision. Magnification is not permitted by any of the SSPC surface cleanliness standards. SSPC-SP 1, “Solvent Cleaning” SSPC-SP 1, “Solvent Cleaning,” requires...