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indirect nondestructive measurements

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0009001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract The measurement techniques for die wear can be classified into the following two categories: direct measurements, which are done using lab techniques; and indirect nondestructive measurements, which are done by plant monitoring. This article describes the details of the plant...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 1 Energy transfer in nondestructive evaluation. In conventional (direct) methods, a single form of energy excites and interacts with the sample, after which its amplitude or transit time is measured (a). Thermal nondestructive evaluation (TNDE) is an indirect process in which excitation More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., interacts with the internal structure, and emerges from the sample to be detected by a sensor (film, transducer) for measurement. Thermal nondestructive evaluation is an indirect process, so that regardless of the form of energy used to excite the sample, interaction with the internal structure of a part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... discusses the basic principles of visual inspection in terms of direct visual examination and indirect visual examination as well as advantages and limitations of visual inspection. It reviews the factors affecting the effectiveness of VI as a nondestructive testing (NDT): lighting conditions of observation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... for Industrial Processes” in this Section. On-Line Corrosion Monitoring Techniques Corrosion monitoring techniques can be divided into two categories, direct and indirect. Direct techniques measure parameters that are directly associated with the corrosion processes. These include coupons, electrical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Magnetic field testing includes some widely used nondestructive evaluation methods to inspect magnetic materials for defects such as cracks, voids, and inclusions and to assess other material properties, such as grain size, texture, and hardness. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Vibration analysis Accelerometers, velocimeters, and/or displacement sensors measure local displacements. Analysis includes amplitude, frequency, and differential measurements Changes may indicate weakening or failed structural components, alignment issues, bearing wear, shaft crack, imbalance. Indirect...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... The ultrasonic wave travels through the material under inspection and interacts with its microstructure. Sound is reflected from interfaces within the material, and the changes in the ultrasonic signal are measured, recorded, and displayed during nondestructive inspection. The techniques used to acquire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... intervention must provide the necessary feedback to make corrective actions in the welding equipment settings. Monitoring and control of a manufacturing process falls within one of four categories: Machine monitoring: Machine monitoring involves measuring an indirect weld parameter before, during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0009000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... with drawing, measurements of the drawing/binder forces and die wear as a function of drawing, and measurements of the initial and final microhardness of the draw bead surfaces. Details of the direct measurement techniques are described in this section. Indirect nondestructive measurement techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... local displacements. Analysis includes amplitude, frequency, and differential measurements Changes may indicate weakening or failed structural components, alignment issues, bearing wear, shaft crack, imbalance. Indirect indication of degradation or failure May provide advance warning of degradation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Containing Less Than Two Percent Porosity,” ( Ref 1 ) and ISO 3369 ( Ref 3 ) can confirm chemical composition and complete densification during sintering/HIP. Cemented carbides containing cobalt binder are nondestructively evaluated for grain size (indirect) and carbon balance through the application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... excess acoustic nonlinearity is directly related to microstructural changes, it can be used to nondestructively characterize the material. Quantifying the microstructural change by measuring the excess acoustic nonlinearity parameter (β e ) requires a relationship between excess nonlinearity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Nondestructive Evaluation Engineering The difference between NDE engineering and the classical engineering disciplines results from the variety of problems and the indirect nature of NDE measurements on engineering system performance. The functional performance of most NDE methods can be measured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the following: Nondestructive inspection Use of coupons Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization Use of electrical resistance probes Use of linear polarization resistance Use of galvanic currents Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Use of electrochemical noise measurement Indirect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... based on a review of the measurements documented in Ref 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 . The Krak Gage technique utilizes an indirect dc potential measurement method, and Liaw et al. have utilized this gage for fatigue studies ( Ref 29 , 30 , 31 ). Krak Gage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...-line evaluation of welds. Both on-line and off-line nondestructive evaluation methods of spot weld quality are discussed in this section. Weld-Quality Monitoring Using Process Signals Electric tip voltage, current, electrode force, and electrode displacement are commonly measured during...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and measurement of these properties as a function of temperature. ceramics chemical analysis density measurement microstructural analysis nondestructive evaluation phase analysis proof testing strength testing methods surface area measurement thermophysical property testing PROPERTIES...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... significantly to the direct and indirect costs of corrosion. Direct costs include not only the damage to or the potential loss of the structure but also the costs of corrosion prevention methods such as coatings and cathodic protection. Indirect costs result when these measures fail to protect the structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the personal computer), and equipment portability ( Ref 13 ). The importance of the XRD method resides in its ability to measure residual and applied stress with high spatial resolution, speed, and excellent accuracy, and, in many cases, measurements can be performed nondestructively ( Ref 14...