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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Fig. 1 Experimental setup for dynamic indentation hardness measurements Fig. 2 Strain-gage signals revealing the stress pulses in the incident bar (a) in the absence of the momentum trap and (b) with the momentum trap. The illustrations on top of the strain signals indicate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Summary of nominal geometric relationships for several indenters used in IIT Table 1 Summary of nominal geometric relationships for several indenters used in IIT Parameter Vickers Berkovich Cube-corner Cone (angle ψ) Sphere (radius R ) Centerline-to-face angle, α 68° 65.3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... technical) ceramics 9.8 1 98.0 10 7 Fig. 11 Hardness versus load for three ceramics. The silicon carbide is the most brittle of the three. Fig. 5 Acceptable and unacceptable Knoop indentations in ceramics Fig. 6 Resolution limits of light microscopy when measuring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Abstract Abstract A newly developed theory on plasticity makes it possible to include elastic effects, which play a major role when using blunt hardness indenters. This article reviews the new theory and explains several phenomena associated with practical hardness testing. In the indentation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... metals with fully annealed metals. The article discusses the plastic deformation of ideal plastic metals under an indenter, by a flat punch, and by spherical indenters. The classification of the hardness tests using various criteria, including type of measurement, magnitude of indentation load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the principal methods for macroindentation hardness testing by the Brinell, Vickers, and Rockwell methods. For each method, the test types and indenters, scale limitations, testing machines, calibration, indenter selection and geometry, load selection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Comparison of indentation hardness <italic>H</italic> and scratch hardness <italic>H</italic><sub>S</sub> for a range of materials Table 1 Comparison of indentation hardness H and scratch hardness H S for a range of materials Material H H S H S / H MPa ksi MPa ksi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... forgings or castings with extremely high hardness Specifications of durometers Table 3 Specifications of durometers Durometer type Main spring Indenter Applications A (conforms to ASTM D 2240) 822 g Frustum cone Soft vulcanized rubber and all elastomeric materials, natural rubber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Comparison of indentation hardness tests Table 1 Comparison of indentation hardness tests The minimum material thickness for a test is usually taken to be 10 times the indentation depth. Test Indenter(s) Indent Load(s) Method of measurement Surface preparation Tests per hour...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Abstract Abstract The gage repeatability and reproducibility (GRR) study is a procedure for determining the repeatability of a test instrument and the reproducibility of a specific gage in operation. This article reviews the general method of GRR studies and its application for indentation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Fig. 6 Schematic of the partial-width-indentation test. L ≌ h; b = h /2; w a = 2 L; 1 = 4 L. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 3 The effect of axial compressive stress on the shear strain at fracture in torsion for various steels. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 9 Comparison of strain paths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... on the environmentally assisted crack growth of polymers is also included. The article details the evaluation of nanoscale environmental effects and indentation-induced cohesive cracking. It also provides information on scanning probe microscopy. hydrogen embrittlement stress-corrosion cracking corrosion fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of principal stresses and strains Fig. 11 Plane-strain compression test Fig. 12 Partial-width indention test. L ≅ h ; b = h /2; w a = 2 L ; l = 4 L Fig. 13 Secondary-tension test showing the geometries of holes and slots. L ≅ h ; w a ≅ 2 = h ; b = h...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... diameter; ID, inside diameter Fig. 45 Extrapolation method to correct for end effects in compressive loading. Source: Ref 55 Fig. 49 Effect of degree of die enclosure on state of stress in forging. Source: Ref 32 Fig. 55 Partial-width indentation test. L ≈ h ; b = h /2...
Book Chapter

By Niels Bay
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... and subsequently machined and formed half of an automotive slide bearing Fig. 16 Lap joining by small tool indentation. (a) Double-sided indentation. (b) Single-sided indentation. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 17 (a) Lap-joined aluminum outlets for a condensator. (b) Lap-joined copper sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., are discussed. For films which are adherent to their substrates, indentation testing is used to evaluate hardness, creep, and strength. adherent films beam-bending methods biaxial testing creep freestanding films hardness indentation testing mechanical properties strength substrates thin films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the most commonly used test methods for determining flow stress in metal-forming processes. The methods include tension, ring, uniform compression, plane-strain compression, torsion, split-Hopkinson bar, and indentation tests. The article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Fig. 1 Vickers hardness test. (a) Schematic of the square-based diamond pyramidal indenter used for the Vickers test and an example of the indentation it produces. (b) Vickers indents made in ferrite in a ferritic-martensitic high-carbon version of 430 stainless steel using (left to right) 500...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of hardness testers, which can be either portable instruments or laboratory devices. Only static indentation and rebound testing are discussed in this article. These two methods account for virtually all routine hardness testing in the metalworking industry. Static indentation hardness testing is the more...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to the plastic flow stress of the material. Table 1 lists the major types of hardness testers, which can be either portable instruments or laboratory devices. Only static indentation and rebound testing are discussed in this article. These two methods account for virtually all routine hardness testing...