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incubation time

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Incubation time of different metals and alloys (frequency = 21.1 kHz; distance between specimen and vibration horn = 0.9 mm; vibration amplitude = 35 μm; temperature = 20 °C; liquid: water). Source: Ref 30 More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 8 Incubation time for crack growth in AISI type 4340 and type D6-AC steel contoured double-cantilever beam test specimens as a function of decrease in stress intensity. Source: Ref 17 More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 15 Incubation time prior to hydrogen stress cracking for AISI type 4340 and type D-6AC steel contoured double-cantilever beam test specimens as a function of decrease in stress intensity More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article describes the results obtained by Volmer, Weber, Farkas, Becker, and Doring, which constitute the classical nucleation theory. These results are the predictions of the precipitate size distribution, steady-state nucleation rate, and incubation time. The article reviews...
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Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 5 Precipitate density as a function of aging time for an aluminum solid solution containing 0.18 at.% Sc aged at 300 °C. The time evolution obtained from cluster dynamics simulations ( Ref 25 ) allows the definition of a steady-state nucleation rate, J st , and an incubation time, t More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 22 Effect of penultimate grain size on the recrystallization kinetics of a low-carbon steel, cold rolled 60% and annealed at 540 °C (1005 °F). Note the incubation time is shortened as the penultimate grain size before cold rolling is decreased. Source: Ref 13 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 20 Effect of penultimate grain size on the recrystallization kinetics of a low-carbon steel, cold rolled 60% and annealed at 540 °C (1005 °F). Note the incubation time is shortened as the penultimate grain size before cold rolling is decreased. Source: Ref 9 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... on the duration of the incubation time preceding the abrupt change in cooling rate ( Ref 1 , 3 ). Since then, experimental work by Liščić and Totten ( Ref 4 ) and numerical calculations by Chen and Zhou ( Ref 5 ) showed that the average cooling rate during delayed quenching can be higher below the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... covered exactly once by pits ( Ref 7 ). It is a characteristic time of the erosion process, together with the incubation time presented later, whose importance is emphasized in the section “ Materials Selection and Surface Protection to Prevent Cavitation Erosion ” in this article. An increase in flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... a multifaceted technical activity. Research investigations on the phenomenon range from studies of crack nucleation and growth, including such parameters as incubation time, crack growth rates, and threshold stress intensities, to studies on the relative susceptibility of materials to hydrogen embrittlement...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and environments for an AISI 4340 steel contoured double-cantilever beam test specimen The contoured double-cantilever beam test has also been used to study the stress-history effect that produces an incubation time before hydrogen stress cracking. Figure 15 shows that incubation time is dependent...
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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 9 Characteristic erosion-versus-time curves. (a) Cumulative erosion (mass or volume loss) versus exposure duration (time, or cumulative mass or volume of liquid impinged). (b) Corresponding instantaneous erosion rate versus exposure duration obtained by differentiating curve More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 5 Low-frequency impedance as a function of sample exposure time for immersed epoxy-coated aluminum. Three stages of coating degradation shown are moisture absorption, incubation, and substrate corrosion. More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 6 Temperature distribution curves inside a 50 mm diameter cylinder derived from (a) normal quench and (b) delayed quench. Time-temperature relations in different points below the surface of a 50 mm diameter cylinder, derived from top figures: (c) normal quench and (d) delayed quench. Z More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... temperature, the material ahead of the crack tip is free from prior creep damage and, therefore, time-dependent crack growth does not begin instantly. Creep crack growth studies have shown that crack extension occurs following a specific time period, which has been termed incubation time. Incubation models...
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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 10 Less common types of cumulative erosion-versus-time curves sometimes obtained. (a) Curve without incubation or acceleration stages, with continuously decreasing rate (obtained in this case with very small droplets and very high impact velocity). (b) Curve with continuously increasing More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... ASTM G 73 details several approaches for calculating and presenting relative or normalized measures of erosion resistance for the various classes of materials considered. These include evaluation based on time to failure, total material loss, erosion rate-time patterns, incubation period, maximum...
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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 11 The erosion-versus-time curve from Fig. 9 , showing some numerical parameters that may be recorded to characterize the test results. A, nominal incubation period; B, slope representing maximum erosion rate; C, y -axis intercept of terminal erosion rate line; D, slope representing More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and cavitation conditions. There is no universal law for erosion rate (mass loss per unit time) evolution with period of exposure to cavitation. In most cases, however, a little mass loss is observed in the early stage of cavitation (incubation stage). This stage often is followed by a period of great increase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... as a function of time at temperature, and later recrystallized grain are very fine in size and also grow after an incubation period. Fig. 12 0.10% carbon steel cold rolled 90% to a thickness of 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) with a Rockwell hardness of 81 (on 30-T scale), then annealed at 550 °C (1025 °F) for 106 s...