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incubation time

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... 25 ) allows the definition of a steady-state nucleation rate, J st , and an incubation time, t inc . Fig. 6 Possible shapes of a nucleus in heterogeneous nucleation. (a) Cap shape. (b) Lens shape Fig. 8 Parallel tangent construction leading to the maximal nucleation driving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... point depends on the constituents of the transformed microstructure, which, in turn, depend heavily on the steel hardenability, that is, on the incubation time at each isotherm. Because incubation times are counted only at temperatures below A 1 for each point on the cross section, the cooling rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... for Cavitation Erosion Testing , Wear , Vol 184 ( No. 1 ), 1995 , p 73 – 81 35. Franc J.-P. , Incubation Time and Cavitation Erosion Rate of Work-Hardening Materials , J. Fluid. Eng ., Vol 131 ( No. 2 ), 2009 36. Hattori S. , Ishikura R. , and Zhang Q. , Construction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...-cantilever beam test specimen Fig. 8 Incubation time for crack growth in AISI type 4340 and type D6-AC steel contoured double-cantilever beam test specimens as a function of decrease in stress intensity. Source: Ref 17 Fig. 9 Side-grooved Charpy V-notch test specimen used for three...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-history effect that produces an incubation time before hydrogen stress cracking. Figure 15 shows that incubation time is dependent on the type of steel. A decrease in the stress-intensity factor from 44 to 22 MPa m (40 to 20 ksi in. ) may change the incubation time from less than 1 h...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of applied stress intensity for two different hardnesses and environments for an AISI 4340 steel contoured double-cantilever beam test specimen The contoured double-cantilever beam test has also been used to study the stress-history effect that produces an incubation time before hydrogen stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...., Engineering Materials Advisory Services , 1994 , p 1 – 21 Incubation Period Equipment Required Measurements Typical Test Procedures Creep Crack Growth Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Correlations Time Dependence of the Life-Prediction Model Creep and Creep-Fatigue Time-Dependent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... evaluation based on time to failure, total material loss, erosion rate-time patterns, incubation period, maximum erosion rate, and terminal erosion rate. Results for different materials can also be normalized by direct comparison to one of the designated reference materials: aluminum alloys 1100-0 or 6061-T6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 60% and annealed at 540 °C (1005 °F). Note the incubation time is shortened as the penultimate grain size before cold rolling is decreased. Source: Ref 9 Fig. 21 Normal grain growth in zone-refined iron during isothermal anneals. Closed circles represent specimens for which statistical...
Book Chapter

By Bruce Craig
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Generally, the threshold stress decreases as the yield strength and tensile strength of an alloy increase. Hydrogen stress cracking is associated with absorption of hydrogen and a delayed time to failure (incubation time), during which hydrogen diffuses into regions of high triaxial stress. Hydrogen stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... pump impeller by cavitation and solid particle erosion. Courtesy of CETIM Fig. 13 Incubation time of different metals and alloys (frequency = 21.1 kHz; distance between specimen and vibration horn = 0.9 mm; vibration amplitude = 35 μm; temperature = 20 °C; liquid: water). Source: Ref 30...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... crack growth in a single framework. Service life is governed by a combination of time to rupture, time of incubation, and time of crack growth. All of these quantities are calculated using a reference stress that is specifically applicable to the geometry of the component and is derived analytically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... at 540 °C (1005 °F). Note the incubation time is shortened as the penultimate grain size before cold rolling is decreased. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 23 Normal grain growth in zone-refined iron during isothermal anneals. Closed circles represent specimens for which statistical analysis of grain-size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... … 0.42 Lysozyme … 0.14 (a) Except as indicated. Source: Ref 1 , 12 Fig. 1 Pourbaix diagram for cobalt Fig. 2 Polarization curve and how it relates to vulnerability Fig. 22 Time to stress-corrosion cracking failure versus applied stress Fig. 15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... as the strain rate is constant). A further modification involves the introduction of the critical strain, ε c , for the initiation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX), so that the appropriate strain variable becomes ( ε − ε c ) . (Here, ε c plays the role of the incubation time in conventional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... iron is cooled down and maintained at a temperature within the typical bainite precipitation temperature range, after an incubation time, acicular ferrite plates begin to nucleate preferentially at austenite/graphite interfaces and at austenite grain boundaries. Figure 1 shows samples of spheroidal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... Fig. 10 Less common types of cumulative erosion-versus-time curves sometimes obtained. (a) Curve without incubation or acceleration stages, with continuously decreasing rate (obtained in this case with very small droplets and very high impact velocity). (b) Curve with continuously increasing erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... on corrosion behavior of implant alloys is complex. Effects of stress-enhanced ion release (SEIR), for example, can be observed under conditions of static and dynamic loading, time exposure, and polarization that do not cause failure by fracture ( Ref 2 , Ref 3 , Ref 4 ). Stress-enhanced ion release refers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...-silanated-filler-content system did show an increase in its stability with time over the lower-filler-content group when incubated with CE. The higher-filler-content composite leached less unreacted monomer (TEGDMA) and also generated less biodegradation products, MA and Bis-HPPP ( Ref 82 ). In most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the incubation stage of erosion. Hattori and Takinami ( Ref 29 ) carried out scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of LDI on the wall material (stainless steel SUS 304) for various elapsed time periods after the start of the erosion test (Fig. 15 in Ref 29 ). It was noted that erosion initiates...