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inclusions and stress gaps

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... inclusion particles act as sites of stress concentration and hydrogen gas nucleation, leading to lower fatigue life, hydrogen embrittlement, surface defects, and other problems in the final product. Predicting their damage requires knowledge of the number, size distribution, composition, and morphology...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanical instability is present ( Ref 15 , 16 ). Thus, fracture gaps can widen and implants, or portions of implants, can become loose. The widening of fracture gaps means increased cyclic loading of the implant unless weight bearing is reduced. Implant loosening can cause either local stress...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The head contains the vacuum ports and the ram, which drives the electrode into the crucible as it is consumed. The electrode position is controlled to maintain an arc gap between the melting electrode tip and the molten pool on the top of the solidified ingot in the water-cooled copper mold. When an ingot...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as a result of out-of-plane distortion in a small gap ( Ref 1 ). Most often, this was a segment of a girder web. When distortion-induced cracking develops in a bridge, large numbers of cracks usually form before corrective action is taken because the cyclic stresses are often very high. As a result, many...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... inclusions on planes parallel to the plate surface, caused by weld shrinkage stresses. The cracks caused by the root weld pass were not by themselves large enough to initiate fracture, but subsequent thermomechanical cycling during the remainder of the welding process caused dynamic strain aging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... conditions and metal transfer and weld pool morphology. It presents constitutive equations for welding current, voltage, and travel rate for ESW. The article describes the metallurgical and chemical reactions in terms of fusion zone compositional effects, weld metal inclusions, solidification structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Also, inclusions and other hard precipitates are more visible in unetched than in etched specimens. After careful examination of the as-polished specimen, the sample should be etched and the examination procedure repeated. Sectioning It is certainly not uncommon in failure analysis to encounter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... to the geometric location of the electrode in the slag. With careful control of the process variables (such as gap distance and convective flow suppression) by external application of the electromagnetic field, reductions of two or three times the usual heat input could be practical. Energy balance in the slag...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ). These features are the primary reason why fatigue in welds is a dominant failure mechanism. Volumetric Discontinuities Volumetric discontinuities include porosity and slag inclusions. Because these types of imperfections tend to be nearly spherical in form, their notch stress concentrating effect is minor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... In steels, manganese sulfides can be homogenized. Nonmetallic inclusions are unquestionably one of the most common imperfections involved in failures. Nonmetallic inclusions can easily become stress concentrators because of their discontinuous nature and incompatibility with the surrounding composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... the metallurgy of the core. This article provides an overview of gear technology and materials selection. It describes different gear-hardening patterns, namely, tooth-by-tooth hardening, tip-by-tip hardening, gap-by-gap hardening, spin hardening, single-frequency gear hardening, dual-frequency gear hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the overall stress and strain rate: (Eq 21b) Σ = ( P sec ) − 1 : D  on the boundary of the medium Finally, if one assumes that the constitutive response in the vicinity of the inclusion is represented by the effective viscoplastic compliance, one can write the local...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... fatigue origins include stress concentrators such as notches or inclusions. An example of a fatigue crack origin at an inclusion is shown in Fig. 10 . In the absence of a stress concentrator, fatigue cracks will initiate within a grain that is best oriented for slip, given the imposed cyclic shear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... to Fatigue Crack Initiation As previously mentioned, even if no stress risers, notches, or inclusions are present, small microcracks may initiate due to a sufficiently high alternating plastic strain amplitude. When a dislocation emerges at the surface, a slip step of one Burgers vector is created...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to 30 Hz. The maximum alternating stress in the fan shaft is typically ±52 MPa (7.5 ksi). Before shipping, shaft forgings are subjected to various types of nondestructive inspections to reveal inclusions and forging bursts or other defects. Fracture mechanics fatigue crack-propagation analysis can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., burrs, and chattering. Excessive chattering ( Fig. 11 ) and large, unfavorably oriented inclusions and strainers might act as stress risers, triggering cracking. Fig. 11 Example of chamfered oil hole with excessive chattering Although the U-shaped inductors typically last longer than...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., tension-overload fracture surface, ductile fracture, cone-shaped fracture surface, intergranular crack propagation, transgranular crack propagation, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen damage, and grain-boundary separation of these alloys. Fractographs are also provided for a forged aircraft main-landing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... and measurement techniques for corrosion control Table 2 Inspection and measurement techniques for corrosion control Technique Description Acoustic emission Measures the location, initiation, and propagation of cracks and defects under stress in metals Dye penetrant Simple procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...), and the finite-element method (FEM). The slab method and upper bound method of analysis assume a known deformation field in the plastically deforming body and assume this field either satisfies the force equilibrium (SM) or power-conservation equations (UBM) to determine the stress field or the external load...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... in an electrolytic cell in which the workpiece is the anode and the tool is the cathode. The electrolyte is pumped through the cutting gap between the tool and the workpiece, while direct current is passed through the cell at a low voltage, to dissolve metal from the workpiece. Electrochemical machining can...