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inclined-plane method

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article describes the techniques for measuring friction, namely, inclined-plane method; friction test methods using weights and pulleys; friction tests of shafts and capstans; other types of friction tests, including standards; microscale friction tests; and friction testing under...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... source-to-monochromator distance and a short sample-to-photographic plate distance. If the reflecting planes are inclined to the surface such that the angle of x-ray incidence is small and the angle of reflection approximately of 90°, the plate can be as close as 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) to the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... methods for measuring friction forces are shown in Fig. 3 . Fig. 3 Schematics of current friction-measuring concepts In the inclined plane test ( Fig. 3a ), one member of the couple of interest is placed on the plane and the plane is tilted until the object starts to move. The tangent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... is the inclination of the boundary with regard to a reference plane ( Ref 9 ): (Eq 5)   γ 1 ( 1 + ε 2 − ε 3 ) sin ⁡ α 1 + ( ε 3 − ε 1 ) cos ⁡ α 1 = = γ 2 ( 1 + ε 1 − ε 3 ) sin ⁡ α 2 + ( ε 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article reviews the common methods of shear and multiaxial testing for the evaluation of engineering components such as fasteners and mill products. It discusses shear test methods, including through-thickness tests, in-plane shear tests, and double-notched shear test. The article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., because no stresses can be supported perpendicular to a free surface. The problem then becomes one of comparing the interplanar spacings of planes parallel to the free surface with those inclined at various angles to the surface, and using the pertinent equations of elasticity to calculate from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... plane prevents a local stress determination. It is also known that adiabatic shear failure occurs in uniaxial compression tests ( Ref 46 , 47 , 48 ). This is observed mostly in high-strength materials like thermomechanically treated steels, titanium alloys, or ultrahigh-strength steels...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of individual lattice planes and defects, as illustrated in Fig. 20 . Fig. 20 High-resolution TEM lattice image of zinc oxide formed by combining transmitted and (002) diffracted beams. The interplanar spacing is 0.26 nm. A grain boundary, inclined to the incident beam, is visible in the upper portion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The design of forging operations; consisting of dies, fixturing, and parts; requires a consistent and unambiguous method for representing critical dimensions and tolerances. This article presents a dimensioning process, based on tooling points and datum planes, with the potential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of metals: ASTM E 399, “Standard Test Method for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials” ( Ref 6 ). ASTM Committee E-8 on “Fatigue and Fracture” has defined the term fracture toughness and the symbol, K Ic , based on the operational methods of ASTM E 399. This test method includes several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... that are symmetrical in one plane but nonsymmetrical in the plane at 90° are usually best straightened in the symmetrical plane. Axial adjustment of some of the rolls to produce additional straightening in the nonsymmetrical plane is necessary in this method, as in the straightening of the angle section shown in Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of the load and sufficiently thin sample thickness, a sample is shocked in a one-dimensional plane strain manner; the sample experiences uniaxial strain loading and uniaxial unloading. Each of these techniques offers advantages and disadvantages as summarized below. Explosive-Driven Shock-Loading Methods...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... cutters, inserted-blade cutters, and indexable-insert cutters, are also discussed. The article explains the capabilities and limitations of peripheral milling, face milling, and end milling methods. It concludes with a comparison of milling with broaching, planing or shaping, and grinding. end...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... as functions of depth, nominally 10 to 100 times the resolution of mechanical or neutron diffraction methods. A condition of plane stress exists in the thin diffracting surface layer, so that no normal or shear stresses are acting out of the free surface. Therefore, the stresses of interest in the plane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... wave will mode convert to a guided wave within the wedge-shaped section of an inclined crack, and the amplitude detected depends on whether one is measuring the in-plane or out-of-plane component of the wave, as well as the frequency-thickness product at that point ( Ref 2 , 51 ). Fig. 11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... 10.1016/0013-7944(75)90043-0 9. Kitagawa H. , Yuuki R. , and Tohgo K. , A Fracture Mechanics Approach to High-Cycle Fatigue Crack Growth Under In-Plane Biaxial Loads , Fatigue Eng. Mater. Struct. , Vol 2 , 1979 , p 195 – 206 10. Gao H. , Brown M.W...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...° dislocations, viewed end on with an average spacing of 1.2 nm, is organized into a medium-angle (10°) two-dimensional tilt boundary. The inclination of the (111) crystal planes on either side of the boundary reflects this 10° misorientation. Fig. 5 Strips of light-dark contrast across the central...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... this difficulty, some modifications to the original Voronoi tessellation have been proposed ( Ref 48 ). For instance, the radical plane method for the packing of spheres allows the partitioning of space by considering the size associated with a site, and thus, it is capable of mimicking an arbitrary size...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... the choice to a few possible planes. The choice of a diffraction peak selected for residual stress measurement impacts significantly on the precision of the method. The higher the diffraction angle, the greater the precision. Practical techniques generally require diffraction angles, 2θ, greater than 120...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Coefficients” ( Ref 17 ), tabulates current ASTM friction tests standards, points out the factors that must be considered when determining coefficients of friction, and suggests a standard reporting format for friction data. Friction Tests An inclined plane test is often used to measure the static...