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inclined-plane method

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applications. It discusses the mathematics behind classical beamforming, full matrix capture, and total focusing methods of imaging. The article shows how ultrasonic array data can be simulated by direct numerical methods (most commonly using finite-element methods), analytical methods, or hybrid methods. It...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology, and the common methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... plating, adversely affect the sensitivity of magnetic-particle inspection. Other limitations are: The method can be used only on ferromagnetic materials. For best results, the magnetic field must be in a direction that will intercept the principal plane of the discontinuity; this sometimes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The design of forging operations; consisting of dies, fixturing, and parts; requires a consistent and unambiguous method for representing critical dimensions and tolerances. This article presents a dimensioning process, based on tooling points and datum planes, with the potential to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is inhomogeneous and, therefore, the x-ray diffraction sin 2 ψ method is no longer applicable. Eighth, the x-ray elastic constants of the coating for an ( hkl ) plane, S 1 h k l = −ν hkl / E hkl and S 2 h k l /2 = (1 + ν hkl )/ E hkl , can be calculated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the characteristics of Rayleigh waves plus methods for generation and detection of waves, including using piezoelectric transducers or noncontact techniques such as lasers, electromagnetic acoustic transducers, or air-coupled ultrasonics. It reviews...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... a billet when it is subjected to compressive forces around the periphery. In rotary piercing, one end of a heated cylindrical billet is fed between rotating work rolls that lie in a horizontal plane and are inclined at an angle to the axis of the billet ( Fig. 1 ). Guide rolls beneath the billet...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... rates can be measured using Federal Standard 101B, Method 4046. Much confusion exists regarding the methods of testing the effective shielding of plastic materials. Distinctions must be made between an infinite homogeneous plane and real plane shields. Moreover, practical shields are housings or boxes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... plates, cylinders, and flanges. The article discusses various control methods, including the use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from external objects; and the use of masks, diaphragms, collimators, and filtration. The radiographic appearance of specific types of flaws is also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Thread rolling is a cold-forming process for producing threads or other helical or annular forms by rolling the impression of hardened steel dies into the surface of a cylindrical or conical blank. Methods that use cylindrical dies are classified as radial infeed, tangential feed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... a description of the comminution process (wet and dry milling methods), it discusses batching and mixing operations and granulation methods. The article also deals with the effect of process variables and the steps involved in chemical synthesis, including preparation from solution and gas-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Quenchant agitation can be obtained by circulating quenchant in a quench tank through pumps and impellers. The selection of the agitation method depends on the tank design, type and volume of the quenchant, part design, and the severity of quench required. This article describes flow...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... regard, because no stresses can be supported perpendicular to a free surface. The problem then becomes one of comparing the interplanar spacings of planes parallel to the free surface with those inclined at various angles to the surface, and using the pertinent equations of elasticity to calculate from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... stress measurement. This shallow depth of penetration allows high-resolution determination of residual-stress distributions as functions of depth, nominally 10 to 100 times the resolution of mechanical or neutron diffraction methods. A condition of plane stress exists in the thin diffracting surface...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... a simple means of measuring static coefficient of friction, it is more typical to use force measurements to determine both static and kinetic coefficients of friction ( Ref 2 ). Fig. 2 Inclined plane used to determine the static coefficient of friction (μ s ). (a) Tilting a flat surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... confirmed this theory. If the system of parallel planes in a mica crystal is inclined to a beam, then waves reflected from neighbor planes strengthen each other only for a certain orientation of the planes. For these discoveries, Nobel Prizes in Physics were awarded to Laue in 1914 for “his discovery of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... neutral planes, τ acts in the direction of metal flow. The stress distribution within this element can be obtained by use of the slab method, as applied to plane-strain upsetting ( Ref 18 ): (Eq 6) σ z = K 2 K 1   ln     ( h 1 h 0 + K 1 X ) + σ z...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Radiography is a nondestructive-inspection method that is based on the differential absorption of penetrating radiation by the part or test piece (object) being inspected. This article discusses the fundamentals and general applications of radiography, and describes the sources of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... associated with radiography. There are two main aspects of safety: monitoring radiation dosage and protecting personnel. The article summarizes the major factors involved in both and discusses the operating characteristics of X-ray tubes. It describes the various methods of controlling scattered radiation...