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inappropriate cooling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract The finished product, after fusion welding, may contain physical discontinuities due to excessively rapid solidification, adverse microstructures due to inappropriate cooling, or residual stress and distortion due to the existence of incompatible plastic strains. To analyze...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... was connected to the lead turn, while the water outlet was connected to the trailing turn. Inappropriate water cooling and incorrect connection of the water-cooling circuit resulted in overheating of the leading turn and premature coil failure. Fig. 20 (a) Two-turn inductor that failed due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... temperature gradients and thermal stresses. More important, the cooling rate should involve, or be consistent with, still-air cooling. Again, the most challenging situation would seem to be that of near-surface normalizing, where inappropriately rapid cooling may result in untempered martensite formation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in service in a cooling water system at a manufacturing facility ( Table 1 ). Recognizing the indicators, causes, mechanisms, and consequences helps to focus investigative actions: Indicators(s): Monitor these as precursors and symptoms of failures. Cause(s): Focus mitigating actions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... discontinuities that are due to excessively rapid solidification, or adverse microstructures that are due to inappropriate cooling, or residual stress and distortion that are due to the existence of incompatible plastic strains. In order to analyze these problems, this article presents an analysis of welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... greatly enhances the ability to understand causes and mitigating options and to specify appropriate corrective actions. Consider the example of a butterfly valve that fails in service in a cooling water system at a manufacturing facility ( Table 1 ). Recognizing the indicators, causes, mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...-cooled copper tuyeres. This is accomplished by passing the cold-air blast through a stacked vertical column of preheated (hot) bricks in one of three blast furnace stoves. Because the cold air gradually extracts the stored heat, a separate heating phase is also necessary. This is effected by shutting off...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for applications such as counterweights, radiation shields, and armor-piercing, kinetic-energy penetrators. Though lead is often thought of as the prototype high-density metal, its softness and low melting temperature make it inappropriate for many applications. In addition, the density of lead is substantially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... temperatures in order to completely fuse with the weld metal. Although the metallurgical reactions that involve melting, solidification, and solid-state transformations may not be unusual, the temperatures and cooling rates observed are severe. Active gases also are present and can dissolve in the fused metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... to be hardened, holding it (if required) for a period long enough for completion of the formation of sufficiently homogeneous austenite, and then rapidly cooling it below the temperature where martensitic transformation begins (martensite start temperature). Rapid cooling allows replacement of the diffusion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...: Maximum temperature limits: It is important that the highest temperature reached by the application does not exceed the maximum temperature limit for the crucible; otherwise, the crucible will fail. Tolerance of thermal shock: If the application results in rapid heating or cooling of the crucible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... Warm Forming Warm forming (815 to 980 , or 1500 to 1800 °F) is also used to shape a number of different steel grades. Warm working reduces energy costs for heating and reduces the amount of scale and thermal contraction that occurs during cooling after forging. The press loads required for warm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... in molten form, passing them to the mold. These troughs are generally made of steel or aluminum, with water-cooled walls to aid in handling the product. Owing to the high glass temperatures and its corrosive nature, high wear occurs in glass-transfer troughs. The Mo-Ni-Cr coatings, with trace additions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... on cooling curve analysis of polymer quenchants. cooling curve analysis induction hardening intensive quenching polymer quenchants Historical Perspective Vegetable and animal oils have been used as quenchants for metals for thousands of years. Historically, very little is known, other than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.9781627084505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005891
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... circulating in opposite sides of the heated workpiece. In this case, the workpiece acts as a semitransparent body to the electromagnetic field. This reduction in coil efficiency also causes a corresponding increase in coil copper losses and necessitates much more coil water cooling. In an extreme case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of compressor and turbine blades ( Ref 1 ). Creep failure of turbine blades, mostly related to issues with cooling, was found to be the second-most costly damage mode. The failure of rotating components tends to be more costly because their significant kinetic energy results in greater collateral damage...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract After solidification and cooling, further processing and finishing of the castings are required. This article describes the general operations of shakeout, grinding, cleaning, and inspection of castings, with particular emphasis on automation technology. It illustrates the vertical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... by interpass cooling. The dies extract little heat under commercial conditions and become very hot. Under adiabatic conditions, the temperature increase Δ T d associated with plastic deformation in a single pass is approximately: Δ T d = Φ σ ¯ ln ( 1 / 1 − r ) / C ρ where C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... austenite and ferrite formers, respectively), the 68% Fe pseudo-binary phase diagram can be used to explain the microstructural transformations that occur during heating and cooling ( Fig. 9 ). Fig. 9 Pseudo-binary diagram at constant iron section (68 wt% Fe) of the Fe/Cr/Ni ternary system. See text...