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in situ monitoring

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Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 14 Process control using in situ monitoring of melt pool, layer-based computed tomography (CT) scanning for defect detection, and destructive testing. (a) Layer-based melt pool data. (b) Layer inspection using CT for defect detection. (c) Mechanical testing of parts with seeded defects More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... Abstract In situ process monitoring includes any technologies that monitor or inspect during an additive manufacturing (AM) process. This article presents the types, process considerations, and challenges of in situ monitoring technologies that can be implemented during an AM process. The types...
Image
Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 2 Data flows for a variety of use cases for in situ process monitoring and control. ML, machine learning; AI, artificial intelligence More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Metal transparency and interaction with X-rays have been recognized as obvious candidate principles from which methods for in situ monitoring of solidification processes could be developed. This article describes the use of X-ray imaging-based techniques to investigate interface...
Image
Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 1 Relationships between AM process parameters (including design and feedstock quality), process signatures that may be detected by in situ monitoring, and part quality metrics obtained from postbuild characterization. Reprinted from Ref 2 with permission from ASTM International More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... (MJ), and sheet lamination (SL). It presents the benefits of online monitoring and process control for polymer AM. It also introduces the respective monitoring devices used, including the models and algorithms designed for polymer AM online monitoring and control. additive manufacturing binder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... metal AM, including methods to identify pores and voids in AM materials, are the focus. The article reviews flaw formation in laser-based powder-bed fusion, summarizes sensors used for in situ process monitoring, and outlines advances made with in situ process-monitoring data to detect AM process flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... the melt pool, which is not possible with other in situ monitoring systems such as high-speed cameras ( Ref 18 ). Fig. 3 Experimental setup proposed by the Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge of the University of Stuttgart for experiments on laser welding. Adapted from Ref 17 Fig. 4 Images from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of low-gravity platforms and facilities for solidification processing. It provides a description of dendritic growth studies and electromagnetic levitation. The article concludes with information on the in situ and real-time monitoring of solidification processing. casting metals and alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006954
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... Manufacturing Research In the last 5 to 10 years, metals AM in situ process-monitoring research has grown significantly, resulting in many excellent reviews on the subject ( Ref 3 – 11 ). Because thermal measurements are a critical aspect of in situ monitoring, many of these articles focus on thermographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... monitoring and characterization for additive processes. The inspection methods required are necessarily nondestructive, rapid, and quantitative. The development of real-time in situ characterization methods can also serve as valuable feedback for process models, process variability characterization, and new...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... to develop predictive relationships in AM has been reported to derive the relationships between process parameters and melt pool geometries using melt pool images from in situ monitoring ( Ref 17 ) and between process parameters and surface heights using surface topography data from ex situ measurement ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... been used extensively to control the DED process. Completion of the feedback loop—using monitor output to adjust process parameters in real-time—is an important factor in accurate manufacturing using DED. There are two approaches that can be used for in situ process monitoring. One approach...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... ( Ref 44 – 52 ). Optical Process-Monitoring Methods Optical measurement devices, such as high-speed cameras that use charge-coupled devices, complementary metal oxide semiconductor detectors, and optical emission spectroscopy (OES), have previously been integrated for monitoring in situ processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
.... A direct memory access approach should be used to avoid delay. Usages of In Situ Data The data acquired from the in situ monitoring process can be used to study and optimize the process and to predict the part qualities. Some typical applications include but are not limited to: Physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... corrosion and corrosivity sensing techniques that can be used in situ in addition to ex situ techniques for detecting corrosion. Direct testing of coupons is used frequently to monitor in-service corrosion because of the simplicity and accuracy of the technique. Electrochemical techniques such as linear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are addressed by various mitigation strategies that include: Design strategies/rules to accommodate AM process constraints Modeling Condition monitoring (sometimes in situ during building) Postprocessing, particularly hot isostatic pressing Postprocessing by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and data logger. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 4 Potential versus surface area of cathode with areas marked for no corrosion, mild corrosion, and serious corrosion Electrochemical impedance measuring systems have been developed with implantable electrodes to monitor in situ corrosion of surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0007023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... of monitoring systems are currently established, as presented in Fig. 13 . More information can be found in the Section “ In Situ Process Control and Monitoring in Additive Manufacturing ” in this Volume. Fig. 13 Types of in-process monitoring systems. QM, quality management; TRL, technology readiness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... commands. L, laser power; D, laser diameter; T, trigger The time-stepped digital command example in Fig. 16(e) consists not only of the laser position ( X - Y ) but also laser power, laser diameter, and trigger for in situ monitoring devices. Therefore, the laser power and diameter can...