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impression size

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Unified Standard threads with tolerances greater than 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) by extruding, by cold heading, or by shaving on automatic machines. Most of the class 3A threads in the sizes generally used have pitch diameter tolerances greater than 0.05 mm (0.002 in.). Therefore, they can be rolled on extruded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are balanced (see Fig. 13c ). Flash can be used to cushion the shock and help absorb the lateral forces. When the production quantity is large enough and the size of the forging is small enough to permit forging in multiple-part dies, the impressions can be arranged so that the side thrusts cancel...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... final transient is small. In the early years of silicon single-crystal growth, the FZ process was widely used; however, today (2008) large-diameter crystals are generally produced by the CZ process. The size of industrial single crystals has dramatically increased over the last 55 years ( Fig. 2 ), and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... size and shape changes. The article also provides information on the carriers of distortion potential that cause measureable size and shape changes. austenitizing carburizing deformation dimensional change distortion heat treatment phase transformation steel thermal stress DIMENSIONAL...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article focuses on the significant fundamental powder characteristics, which include particle size, particle size distribution, particle shape, and powder purity, followed by an overview of general and individual powder production processes such as mechanical, chemical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... counterlocks, they should be used only if a forging cannot be produced more economically without them. The size of the die block is determined by the width of the finished “platter,” including allowance for flash and gutters and allowance for the preforming impressions and for sprues and gates for the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... shape changes. The roll dies act like a roll as well as a forging die. Forging rolls are available in numerous sizes and have the capacity to roll blanks up to 200 mm (8 in.) thick and 1920 mm (75 in.) long. The roll dies usually have multiple progressive impressions through which the workpiece is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses the operation of upset forging machines and selection of the machine size. It describes several types of upsetter heading tools and their materials. The article reviews the cold shearing and hot shearing methods for preparing blanks for hot upset forging. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... important properties to characterize powders, namely the particle size, surface area, density, porosity, particle hardness, compressibility, green strength, and flowability. For characterization of powders, both individual particles and bulk powders are used to evaluate their physical and chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... quantifying phase mixtures in powder samples. It provides information on typical sensitivity and experimental limits on precision of XRPD analysis and other systematic sources of errors that affect accuracy. Some of the factors pertinent to the estimation of crystallite size and defects are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... size, machining, descaling, cutting to length, and lubricating. It lists the advantages of the cold heading over machining. Materials selection criteria for dies and punches in cold heading are also described. The article provides examples that demonstrate tolerance capabilities and show dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the workpiece may be referred to as a weld trap. Adjustments in the application and size of weld traps can be made without interfering with the die impressions. When weld traps are placed along a substantial percentage of the periphery of a forging, the remainder of the periphery is given more flash...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workpiece. It is also a restriking operation (called, depending on the purpose, sizing or bottom or corner setting) used to sharpen or change a radius or profile. Ordinarily, coining entails: Preliminary Workpiece Preparation . Full contact between the blank and die surfaces, which is necessary for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deform elastically (and sometimes plastically) during forging. Die deformation is predictable and can be minimized by making the die dimensions large relative to the size of the impression. Plastic deformation is irreversible and should be avoided altogether. Once plastic deformation of the dies begins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... closely. Fig. 2 A conventional forging, showing horizontal and vertical corners and fillets. Dimensions given in inches The size of corners and fillets (defined by magnitude of radius) is influenced by several variables, including rib height, type of forging process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... corresponds to the depth of die impression. For the very large forgings (flat forged), impressions are as deep as 610 mm (24 in.). The more typical forging sizes are ordinarily contained within a 150 mm (6 in.) height of draft, exclusive of corners and fillets. Draft-angle intervals: Within the range of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Mechanical properties determined from a sample with a section size 30 mm (1.2 in.) in diameter. (b) Mechanical properties determined from a Y block 23 mm (0.9 in.) section Table 2 Tensile properties, hardness, and thermal conductivity of various CG irons at room temperature Structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... final shape in the finisher. The “finisher impression” gives the final overall shape of the workpiece. In this impression, excess metal is forced out into the flash. Flash is trimmed and recycled. Copper-base forgings exhibit high strength as a result of their fibrous texture, fine grain size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9