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imperfections

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the general root causes of failure associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be the common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products. The article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... shrinkage. This article describes the imperfections in the solidification process including porosity, inclusions, oxide films, secondary phases, hot tears, and metal penetration. It talks about the purpose of the gating system and the risering system in the casting process. alloys casting gating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... imperfections may be tolerable and how the other may be root-cause defects in service failures. The article explains the effects of joint design on weldment integrity. It outlines the origins of failure associated with the inherent discontinuity of welds and the imperfections that might be introduced from arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... plays an important role in its use for quality measurement. Certain weld imperfections can be revealed directly by inspecting a weld externally. The commonly inspected imperfections are listed as follows, based on the observations of welding practitioners and researchers and on many resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., and wire joint. It explains the use of consumables for laser welding and highlights the special laser welding practices of steel, aluminum, and titanium engineering alloys. Laser weld quality and quality assessment are described with summaries of imperfections and how its operations contribute to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray topography is the general term for a family of x-ray diffraction imaging techniques capable of providing information on the nature and distribution of imperfections. This article provides a detailed account of x-ray topography techniques, providing information on the historical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... iron, gray cast iron, malleable irons, ductile iron, low-alloy steel castings, austenitic steels, corrosion-resistant castings, and cast aluminum alloys are the materials discussed. The article describes the general types of discontinuities or imperfections for traditional casting with sand molds. It...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the underlying fundamentals, applications, the relevance and necessity of performing proper stress analysis in conducting a failure analysis. It presents an introduction to the stress analysis of bodies containing crack-like imperfections and the topic of...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... geometric factors and materials aspects that influence the stress-strain behavior and fracture of ductile metals. It highlights fractures arising from manufacturing imperfections and stress raisers. The article presents a root cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of the fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... they are made. Although most steel plate is used in the hot-finished condition, some applications require one or more heat treating steps to mitigate imperfections and/or improve relevant qualities. The article discusses these interconnected factors as well as their impact on mechanical properties and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... surface imperfections with varying degrees of severity. Seams, laps, and slivers are probably the most common defects in hot-rolled bars and shapes. Another condition that could be considered a surface defect is decarburization. Hot-rolled steel bars and shapes can be produced to chemical composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... composition, and relative freedom from detrimental surface imperfections. Cold drawing significantly increases machinability, tensile and yield strengths of steel bars. Two special die-drawing processes have been developed to give improved properties over those offered by standard drawing practices. These...
Book Chapter

By R.J. Glodowski
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... the manufacture of carbon steel wire is produced with manufacturing controls and inspection procedures intended to ensure the degree of soundness and freedom from injurious surface imperfections necessary for specific applications. This article also describes the various quality descriptors applicable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... eliminates surface scratches, nicks, extrusion die lines, and other imperfections. Some surface contaminants, if not removed before the work enters the etching solution, may accentuate these imperfections during etching. The effects of oxides, rolled-in dirt, and many other surface contaminants can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compression, bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... imperfections within the grains of polycrystalline metals or even single-phase alloys. Conventionally, substructure refers to subboundaries (low-angle boundaries), crystal imperfections (dislocations and stacking faults), and substructure impurity (solute distribution in the matrix). In all cases, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 26. Kelly A. and Groves G.W. , Crystallography and Crystal Defects , Addison-Wesley , 1970 27. Prince E. , Mathematical Techniques in Crystallography and Materials Science , Springer-Verlag , 1982 28. van Bueren H.G. , Imperfections in Crystals , North...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... improved mechanical properties, close size tolerances, and a surface free of imperfections. WIRE ROD is a semifinished product rolled from billet on a rod mill and is used primarily for the manufacture of wire. The steel for wire rod is produced by all the steelmaking processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... approach the curve predicted by the 3-D small-deformation analysis as the panel becomes longer. This phenomenon is attributed to the fact that the 3-D small-deformation analysis corresponds to the unstable equilibrium condition under no imperfections. Fig. 14 Comparison of predicted longitudinal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... tendency for segregation with increasing ingot size. Segregation in titanium ingot must be controlled because it leads to several different types of imperfections that cannot be readily eliminated either by homogenizing heat treatments or by combinations of heat treatment and primary mill processing...