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impact-damaged composites

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., fiber pullout, and impact damage. Table 1 shows some of the defects that may appear in composite laminates and their effect on the structural performance. While the emphasis of most practical nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is on detection of delaminations, porosity, and impact damage, Table 1 shows...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... fundamentals of tensile testing of fiber-reinforced composites, this article describes environmental exposures that can occur during specimen preparation and testing. These include exposures during specimen preparation, and planned exposure such as moisture, damage (impact), and thermal cycling. The article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... contained in the following sections. Fig. 4 Ultrasonic C-scan of an impact-damaged composite The robotic ultrasonic inspection system shown in Fig. 5 incorporates state-of-the-art equipment and processing techniques for the evaluation of advanced material systems and geometrically complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., as shown in Fig. 2 ( Ref 23 ), the forgeability of 2014 Al is lower than 6061 Al at 400 °C (750 °F) even though the 2014 has smaller-sized Al 2 O 3 platelets. The lower forgeability of the 2014 suggests that matrix forgeability has a strong impact on the overall forgeability of the composite at...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., this value is considerably lower. Because of the properties listed above, aramid, carbon, and hybrid-fiber-reinforced plastics can provide structures that are 25 to 45% lighter than aluminum structures designed to the same functional requirements. Impact energy values for aramid-epoxy composites...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... virtually every modern industry, for many reasons. Structural adhesives offer significant advantages over traditional fastening methods: increased basic strength, greater durability, and remarkable resistance to water, outdoor environments, solvents, impact, corrosion, temperature extremes, and thermal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Cutting is basically accomplished through an erosion or shear process. In the case of abrasive water-jet cutting, the sharp edges of each grain of abrasive are worn down by impact with the workpiece. This reduces its cutting efficiency, and it is both impractical and uneconomical to recover and reuse it...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... composites are also considered very promising for automotive applications because of their high energy absorption under compression and their impact properties ( Ref 8 ). Front-end crumple zones and A- and B-pillars can be filled with such low-density composites to obtain high-energy-absorption...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... particle testing. It covers the effects of various factors on the properties of the part that may impact failure analysis, describes the characterization of damage modes and crack sizes, and finally discusses the processes involved in application of NDE results to failure analysis. crack sizes...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... tests. impact wear rolling contact wear sliding wear tribosystem analysis wear mechanisms wear test methods WEAR is mechanically-induced surface damage that results in the progressive removal of material. Because different types of wear occur in machinery, many different types of wear...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...) Compressive strength Fatigue strength Impact strength Fracture toughness Creep strength and stress relaxation Physical properties Density (mass per unit volume) Thermal properties (heat capacity, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, etc.) Electrical properties (electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... atom is ionized (e.g., by electron impact) in an inner shell (e.g., K -shell). The generated electron vacancy can be filled by an electron from an outer shell (e.g., L -shell), and the energy gain of this transition causes the emission of another electron from the outer shell. According to the net...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... relative motion between that surface and one or more contacting substances and generally consists of a progressive loss of material from the wearing surface. It may include oxidation, corrosion, creep, fatigue, frictional effects, battering from impact, pseudomachining due to rough surfaces, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-filament mats have allowed their use throughout the composite. Regardless of mat style, the processor depends on the mat manufacturer to provide control over fiber distribution, binder content and distribution, and defects that have a serious impact on processing efficiency. Although the random-fiber...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... impact cause little damage to the underlying metal because of its high hardness. Tungsten contacts are used in switching devices with closing forces of more than 20 N (4.5 lbf) and in circuits with high voltages and currents not more than 5 A, such as automotive ignitions, vibrators, horns, voltage...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-strain curve. Toughness is also related to composite impact resistance and ballistic stopping power ( Ref 61 , 62 ). The p -aramid fibrillar structure and compressive behavior contribute to composites that are less notch sensitive ( Ref 63 ) and that fail in a ductile, nonbrittle or noncatastrophic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... transition ASTM D 256 Izod impact TGA DSC TMA Extrapolated onset temperature wt% at 600 °C (1110 °F) °C °F °C °F J/m ft · lbf/in. °C °F PVC, flexible 29 65 150 41 105 T g 270 5.0 274 525 5.7 PVC, rigid 30 120 250 102 215 T g 20 0.4 278 530 7.9 ABS...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coatings as base for paint application JIS K 5400 … … General testing methods for coatings 6.11 … Impact test (uses 300 g, or 0.7 lb, weight dropped from 1000 mm, or 40 in., height) 6.12 … Flexibility test (bending over a 3 mm, or 0.12 in., diameter mandrel) JIS Z 0228 … … Wetting...