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immersed-electrode furnaces

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., submerged-electrode furnaces, immersed-electrode furnaces, and externally heated furnaces. It discusses the important applications of various furnace designs, including the austempering of ductile iron, the hardening of tool steels, and the isothermal annealing of high-alloy steels. case hardening...
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Published: 30 September 2014
–1350 10–20 10–20 735–955 1350–1750 4–8 4–8 955–1175 1750–2150 3–4 3–4 1010–1285 1850–2350 1–3 1–3 Furnace C (immersed-electrode furnaces) 535–735 1000–1350 2–4(a) 4–5 735–955 1350–1750 1–2(a) 2–3 955–1175 1750–2150 1 2 –1(a) 1–2 1010–1285 1850 More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Batch furnaces and continuous furnaces are commonly used in heat treating. This article provides a detailed account of various heat treating equipment and its furnace types, including salt bath equipment (externally heated, immersed-electrode and submerged-electrode furnaces...
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 5 Internally heated salt bath furnace with immersed electrodes and ceramic tiles More
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 7 Metal pot, immersed-electrode salt bath furnace for ferrous tempering and isothermal annealing—see table for standard sizes Typical standard sizes Temperature range Working dimensions Input, kW Heating capacity (A) Length (B) Width (C) Depth °C °F mm in. mm More
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 8 Metal pot, immersed-electrode salt bath furnace for liquid carburizing, cyaniding, and carbonate baths—see table for standard sizes Typical standard sizes Temperature range Working dimensions Input, kW Heating capacity (A) Length (B) Width (C) Depth °C °F mm More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 4 Internally heated salt bath furnace with immersed electrodes and ceramic tiles More
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and superalloy ESR. electroslag remelting solidification plate steels freckles ELECTROSLAG REMELTING (ESR) is a secondary refining process ( Fig. 1 ), where a consumable electrode is melted by immersion in a molten flux (slag) consisting primarily of fluorspar (CaF 2 ). The heating is generated...
Book Chapter

By Daryl D. Peter
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... everything with flux or braze alloy; flux can be corrosive to fixtures and surrounding metal structures and equipment. Even when compared with more modern heating methods, the speed of immersion heating is hard to match and dip brazing, therefore, continues to be a common process. Furnace Construction...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... All major additions are made to the furnace through the roof by swinging the roof out of the way and charging scrap, fluxes, and carbon from loaded buckets. The furnace has two or three electrodes mounted vertically through the roof of the furnace that float just above the surface of the cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of alloys generally of the 35Ni-15Cr type or modifications that contain from 30 to 40% Ni and 15 to 23% Cr and include RA330, 35-19, Incoloy, and other proprietary alloys (b) Immersed-electrode furnaces only. (c) Low-carbon steel is recommended for completely submerged electrodes only. Typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., development of all electric glass melting furnaces progressed. A series of different electrode materials were used but they each had drawbacks. For example, carbon electrodes oxidized and chemically reduced the glass constituents and degraded after time; iron electrodes added color to the glass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to achieve good heating system longevity. Care must be taken when using outside heating, to prevent localized “hot spots” where reaction byproducts may accumulate and retard heat transfer in the salt bath furnace.) Electric immersion heaters may be either resistance elements, enclosed in a tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... those used for torch or furnace brazing, because parts to be brazed are totally immersed in the molten flux. Therefore, oxygen cannot reach the surface of the parts to reform oxides. In dip brazing, the flux acts as a heat transfer medium, in addition to its fluxing action, to bring the aluminum parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... are required for dip brazing than for torch and furnace brazing, because the parts are totally immersed in flux during dip brazing and oxygen cannot reach the surfaces of the parts to reform an oxide. Fluxes used in brazing aluminum alloys usually consist of mixtures of alkali and alkaline-earth chlorides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... instrumentation is used. Control by means of valves (on-off or high-low control) requires mechanical instrumentation and is less accurate, although for a majority of applications it is entirely adequate. Internally Heated Salt Baths Internally heated salt baths (immersed or submerged electrodes) may...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... vacuum arc remelting vacuum induction melted THERE ARE TWO COMMONLY USED remelting processes for metal refinement: electroslag remelting (ESR) and vacuum arc remelting (VAR). In both processes, an electrode is melted as it advances into the melting region of the furnace. As the working face...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... forms a melting chamber, the hearth of which is bowl shaped. Three carbon or graphite electrodes carry the current into the furnace. Steel, either solid or molten, is the common conductor for the current flowing between the electrodes. The metal is melted by arcs from the electrodes to the metal charge...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; this type of furnace lends itself more readily to intermittent operation and is not widely used for high-volume production. On the other hand, furnaces that are internally heated by immersed or submerged electrodes are not well suited to intermittent operation; therefore, they are used for high-volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., refractory material; 4, insulation; 5, burner No. 1; 6, burner No. 2; 7, reversing valve; 8, filter; 9, cover Internal Resistance Heating The gas and particles are heated by suitably sheathed internal resistance-heated elements. This heating method is very similar to that of the immersed electrodes...