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image segmentation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... is most accurate at earlier times in the sequence, although contrast is likely to be stronger in the later images ( Ref 9 ). Flaw size measurement typically uses the length of the full-width, half-maximum line segment through the major axis of the flaw ( Fig. 5 ) ( Ref 10 ). Fig. 5 (a) Maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Machine vision, also referred to as computer vision or intelligent vision, is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye and brain system with digital techniques. The machine vision functionality is extremely useful in inspection, supervision...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... typical CT image of a turbine blade with the measured wall thickness information displayed. In this case, the wall thicknesses were measured with automated software, which makes many measurements along each wall segment (between ribs), marks the location of the thinnest portion, and posts the measured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Film radiography requires the development of the exposed film so that the latent image becomes visible for viewing. It describes the general characteristics of film, including speed, gradient, and graininess, and the factors affecting film selection and exposure time. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applications. It discusses the mathematics behind classical beamforming, full matrix capture, and total focusing methods of imaging. The article shows how ultrasonic array data can be simulated by direct numerical methods (most commonly using finite-element methods), analytical methods, or hybrid methods. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features through imaging from lower magnifications to atomic resolution and the acquisition of chemical and crystallographic information from small regions of the thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Radiography is the process or technique of producing images of a solid material on a paper/photographic film or on a fluorescent screen by means of radiation particles or electromagnetic waves of short wavelength. This article reviews the general characteristics and safety principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray topography is the general term for a family of x-ray diffraction imaging techniques capable of providing information on the nature and distribution of imperfections. This article provides a detailed account of x-ray topography techniques, providing information on the historical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the SEM compared with other common microscopy and microanalysis techniques. The following sections cover the critical issues regarding sample preparation, the physical principles regarding electron beam-sample interaction, and the mechanisms for many types of image contrast. The article also presents...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... parts, through-transmission breast imaging system, inspection of welds in thick materials, and inspection of sleeve-bearing stock. It describes the basic system for liquid-surface acoustical holography and scanning acoustical holography. A comparison between these techniques is also provided...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... quantitative geometrical methods for characterizing nonplanar fracture surfaces. Prominent techniques for studying fracture surfaces are based on the projected images, stereoscopic viewing, and sectioning. The article provides information on various roughness and materials-related parameters for profiles and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., conditions, and specific circumstances that together can reduce the anticipated service life of a component or plant. The color images in this article are categorized according to the type of corrosion following the general order that is adopted in Volume 13A of ASM Handbook. The first table of the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... a grain boundary falls below the critical size of 0.5Δ r , the corresponding segment loses any physical meaning for the simulation and can be deleted. This procedure is illustrated in Fig. 5(b) , where the segment l m ¯ has reached a length less than the critical size and therefore is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Planetary thread rolling machines have one central rotating die on a fixed axis and one or more stationary concave segment dies located near the outside of the rotary die, as shown in Fig. 15 . One or several blanks may be rolled on a segment die at one time, depending on the gearing of the starting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... applications is presented. ion beam interaction focused ion beam imaging focused ion beam milling Focused ion beam (FIB) instruments can be thought of as the tools that can help humans to see, manipulate, and analyze matter at the smallest length scales. At the most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... tension (i.e., the energy/unit length) associated with the dislocation. Therefore, further motion of the defect requires some segments to glide completely through the obstacles (i.e., mainly the strain fields) and for others to glide from regions of high strain to those of lower-strain fields between the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... purposes. The development of image analysis equipment began in the late 1960s, but computer systems were not technically advanced at that time. The history of quantitative metallography is not long, but its use has become very important. Although the fundamental relationships for stereology, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... characteristics, the fractal properties of profiles have also been investigated ( Ref 8 9 ). (The use of fractals is discussed in the article “Particle Image Analysis” in Powder Metal Technologies and Applications, in Volume 7 of the ASM Handbook . The reported experimental results on the fractal behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... possessed a uniform α+β structure throughout the disk with an α-Ti grain size of ∼10 μm (∼0.4 mil). Orientation images of the hub, web, and rim of a roll formed titanium alloy disk were obtained using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD). (0001) pole figures are shown in Fig. 12(a) and (b) for...